Strategic Leadership Models And Theories: Indian Perspectives


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STRATEGIC LEADERSHIP MODELS AND THEORIES: INDIAN PERSPECTIVES

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Strategic Leadership Models and Theories: Indian Perspectives
By Som Sekhar Bhattacharyya
National Institute of Industrial Engineering, Mumbai, India
Sumi Jha
National Institute of Industrial Engineering, Mumbai, India
United Kingdom – North America – Japan – India – Malaysia – China

Emerald Publishing Limited Howard House, Wagon Lane, Bingley BD16 1WA, UK
First edition 2018
Copyright © 2018 Emerald Publishing Limited
Reprints and permissions service Contact: [email protected]
No part of this book may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, transmitted in any form or by any means electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise without either the prior written permission of the publisher or a licence permitting restricted copying issued in the UK by The Copyright Licensing Agency and in the USA by The Copyright Clearance Center. Any opinions expressed in the chapters are those of the authors. Whilst Emerald makes every effort to ensure the quality and accuracy of its content, Emerald makes no representation implied or otherwise, as to the chapters’ suitability and application and disclaims any warranties, express or implied, to their use.
British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library
ISBN: 978-1-78756-260-8 (Print) ISBN: 978-1-78756-259-2 (Online) ISBN: 978-1-78756-261-5 (Epub)

To Late Meenakshi Jha, Mother of Sumi Jha
and Late Bibhuti Bhusan Bhattacharyya, Father of
Som Sekhar Bhattacharyya

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Contents

Preface

ix

Acknowledgements

xiii

About the Authors

xv

Chapter 1 Introduction to Leadership Theory and Strategic

Leadership

1

Chapter 2  Literature Review of Leadership Theories

7

Chapter 3  Literature Review of Strategic Leadership Models

19

Chapter 4  Research Methodology

29

Chapter 5  Findings on Leadership Theories

97

Chapter 6 Findings on the Evolution of Strategic Leadership

Models in the Indian Context

127

Chapter 7  Discussion and Conclusion

159

Chapter 8  Scope, Implication and Future Directions

169

Appendices

179

References

205

Index

225

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Preface
Leadership as a concept has been well researched. A metaphor from Koontz’s (1961) ‘The management theory jungle’, establishes that even in leadership theories a jungle has been created. The point of concern though is that the leadership theories’ jungle has been predominantly created by Western minds. With the growth of emerging economies such as that of India, a compelling argument can be put forth stating that an India-centric leadership theory be created. Leadership theories in the business context, thus lack contextual grounding in emerging economies like India.
India requires a special treatment in strategic leadership studies. It is important to understand why a separate leadership study context in India deserves merit. In global cultural studies, India has always been treated as distinct, culturally (House, Javidan, Hanges, & Dorfman, 2002; ­Huntington, 1993; Ronen & Shenker, 1985). Therefore, leadership practices in India from a cultural point of view requires special treatment. Emerging economy countries carry institutional voids (Khanna & Palepu, 2005). Institutional voids manifest in business practices. Thus, leadership theories in emerging economic context like India require reexamination. Emerging economy countries’ dominant business models vary from those of the developed countries (Arnold & Quelch, 1998; Bhattacharyya, 2011; Dhanaraj & Khanna, 2011; Khanna, Palepu, & Sinha, 2005). B­ usiness leaders practising leadership are grounded in these business models. This difference also qualifies for a re-look at leadership theories based on the leadership practices in emerging economies. Technology is altering the way leaders’ social interaction and business operations are being driven. Leadership practices are getting altered because of the presence of ubiquitous, connected information technology platform in mobile devices (Avolio & Kahai, 2003; Avolio, Kahai, & Dodge, 2001; Cascio & Shurygailo, 2003). The presence of technology thus requires a need for reexamination of leadership theories studied.
Indian business like that of other emerging economies has been expanding globally. Indian leaders and Indian leadership will matter more in the

x    Preface
future of global business landscape. There have been studies on leadership in India, but these studies have focussed on highlighting facts on Indian leadership practices. In other words, there have been very few attempts towards theoretically analysing Indian leadership practices. This book is unique because it has been based on empirical research (in-depth personal interviews with Indian business leaders) on theories, on both leadership and models on strategic leadership. The authors have analysed the prominent leadership theories. The purpose of this study was to decipher the changing relevance of these theories in the present-day Indian context in terms of primarily locating the divergence of Indian leadership practices with existing leadership theories. Therefore, the objective of the study has been to conduct a thematic analysis of relevance on converging and diverging leadership theories in India from that of the West. This has helped in comprehending aspects in which Indian business leadership theories and models converge or diverge with respect to Western views on leadership.
In the Indian context, for strategic leadership models there have been very limited studies regarding present requirements of leadership characteristics. Furthermore, there have been very few studies in India deliberating the foundations of leadership models at different stages; namely, individual, interpersonal, inter-functional, inter-business and at the industry level. There is also a paucity of research on the process of strategic leadership development in India. The impact of technology on Indian business leadership has also been rarely studied. Finally, strategic leaders’ decision-making process model studies are also limited in the Indian context. Thus, the research objectives of this study were to fill these researchable gaps like on mapping the dynamic characteristics of strategic leaders, studying strategic leadership development stages and comprehension of strategic leadership processes.
The authors undertook a qualitative exploratory research to study 21 leadership theories based on the input of 26 top-level Indian business ­leaders. The inputs from these leaders were used to prune and expand extant Western leadership theories. Content analysis was used for data analysis. This study further aimed at analysing different strategic leadership models with perspectives from India. The study focussed on the following:
⦁⦁ To outline the dynamic strategic leaders’ characteristics and its evolution from the past to the future.
⦁⦁ To develop foundational pillars of leadership at multiple levels; namely, individual, interpersonal, inter-functional, inter-business and industry level.

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Strategic Leadership Models And Theories: Indian Perspectives