Lignicolous Macro Fungi from Gujarat, India


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WSN 45(2) (2016) 307-330

EISSN 2392-2192

Lignicolous Macro Fungi from Gujarat, India
Praveen Kumar Nagadesi1,*, Arun Arya2
1Department of Botany, Andhra Loyola College, Vijayawada - 520008, Andhra Pradesh, India 2Department of Botany, Faculty of Science, The Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda, Vadodara - 390002, Gujarat, India
*E-mail address: [email protected]
ABSTRACT
The state of Gujarat is well known for its contrasting eco-regions such as moist deciduous forests and deserts. The documentation of Lignicolous fungal diversity of Gujarat state was started in 19th century by different scientist. Detailed fungal diversity study was started in 2003 from different parts of Gujarat to identify the lignicolous fungi that destroy wood logs in different forests. During these studies we noticed a great lacuna in fungal diversity of lignicolous fungi occurring in Gujarat. Here we provide, for the first time, lignicolous fungal diversity from timbers of Gujarat state. The survey revealed that the economically important woods present in Gujarat were 14 and locally available common woods were seven. A total of 69 species Lignicolous macro fungi belong to 15 families and 30 general. These wood deteriorating fungi were belonging to the families Xylariaceae, Agaricaceae Coprinaceae, Pleurotaceae Auricularreae, Bondarzewiaceae Ganodermataceae, Shizophyllaceae, Stecherinaceae, Hymenochaetaceae, Lachnocladiaceae, Schizoporaceae, Fomitopsidaceae, Polyporaceae Stereaceae. All the lignicolous fungi were new to Gujarat, India. For the first time Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Sing. Agaricus silvaticus Schaeff. Coprinus plicatilis (Fr.) Fr. Pleurotus pulmonarius (Fries) Quélet, belonging to Agaricales were reported from Gujarat, India. The commonly observed lignicolous fungi on woods belongs to Basidiomycota and Ascomycota were Schizophyllum commune, Flavodon flavus, Ganoderma lucidum, Daldinia concentric, Xylaria polymorpha.
Keywords: Macrofungi; Lignicolous, Gujarat; Xylariaceae; Agaricales

World Scientific News 45(2) (2016) 307-330
1. INTRODUCTION
The occurrence and distribution of different Aphyllophoroid Basidiomycetes depends on the type of wood, availability of moisture, temperature, and sun light. It is interesting to note that history of Aphyllophorales is quite old in India. Important contributors are Bose, Sundararaman and Marudarajan, Bakshi and Thind among others. Bose [1] gave a comprehensive account on Indian Polypores collected from Bengal in a series of papers. Sundararaman and Marudarajan [2] also reported several polypores from Madras. Sarbhoy et al [3] listed more than 500 Aphyllophorales. Bakshi [4] published a book on Indian Polyporaceae and Sharma [5] on Hymenochaetaceae of India. Thind [6] explored of mycoflora in Himalayas. He put forth the tissue concept for Indian species of polypore as proposed by Corner.
According to available record, Bakshi [4] also reported Polyporus luteo-umbrinus Romell on ground attached to buried wood or root and dead fallen Heritiera minor in Baroda, Gujarat. Wood deteriorating fungi were first collected in Gujarat state in 1992 by S. D. Sabnis and later by Arya in 2004. Sabnis reported Polyporus sp. From Sardar Sarovar in Gujarat. and Arya [7] reported 7 species of fungi from Schoolpaneshwar Wildlife Sanctuary, Gujarat i. e. Phallus impudicus L., Cyanthus striatus (Schw.) de Toni, Ganoderma lucidum (Fr.) Ryv., Lenzites sterioides (Fr.) Ryv., Phellinus nilgheriensis (Mont) Cunn, Trametes cingulata Fr, and T. Varians Van der Bij. The Trametes varians and Lenzites sterioides are new reports to India. Arya et al. [8] reported that Lenzites sterioides was recorded for the first time on T. grandis. Two other polypores Navisporus floccosus and Coriouls aspera were reported for the first time from India.
Nagadesi & Arya [9] reported Aurificaria indica var. leucocephala var. nov, and Microporus affinis var. glabriceps var. nov. were described and four species, Fomitopsis cupreorosea, Ganoderma curtisii, Microporus alboater and Phellinus shaferi from Ratanmahal Wildlife Sanctuary (RWLS), Gujarat were new reports for India. Thirty species of lignicolous fungi belonging to Ascomycetes and Basidiomycete are reported from the Ratanmahal Wildlife Sanctuary, Gujarat, India. The new species are Coriolus versicolor, Coriolopsis gallica, Daedalea quercina, F. resupinate, D. unicplor var. hydnoidea, Fomitopsis rosea, Hypodontia comptopsis and Lenzites betulina. F. varigatum is reported for the first time from India. All the species are new to Gujarat, India [10]. Rotting of Peltophorum ferrugineum (Decne.) Benth. living trees by pathogenic lignicolous fungi like Flavodon flavus (Klotz.) Ryv., Gloeophyllum sepiarium (Fr.) Karst., Ganoderma applanatum (Pers.) Pat. and Schizophyllum commune Fr. was describe [11].
Taxonomic studies of the genus Phellinus had been extensively done throughout the world by different mycologist [12,13]. P. rubriporus (Phellinus torulosus) was selected by Donk [14] as generic nomenclature type. Then the concept of Phellinus has remained stable. In India Phellinus was studied by Bagchee [15] and Sharma [16]. Fifty three species have been already reported from India [16]. Eighteen species have been reported from Kerala [17]. Lignicolous fungi play a significant role in destruction of forest flora especially wood, litter and living trees. A few species of Phellinus was reported from Gujarat i.e. Phellinus nilgheriensis (Mont.) Cunn [7]. Rotting of Peltophorum ferrugineum (Decne.) Benth. living trees by pathogenic lignicolous fungi like Phellinus badius (Berk.: Cke) Cunn., P. robustus (Karst.) Bourd. & Galz., P. pectinatus (Kl.) Quel., P. hoehnelii (Bres.) Ryv., P. conchatus (Pers.: Fr.) Quel., P. pachyphloeus (Pat.) Pat., P. rhabarbarinus (Berk.) Cunn., P. setulosus
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(Llyod) Imaz., and P. caryophyllii (Racib.) Cunn. was describe [11]. For the first time all lignicolous fungi were recorded from Rajpipla, Gujarat, India. It was interesting to note that in Vadia palace, Rajpipla there are approximately 100 P. ferrugineum trees, out of which 69 plants were infected with pathogenic lignicolous fungi. In Arboretum of Botany Department, M.S. University of Baroda was surveyed, 10 plants were present, and out of that 7 plants were infected. Except P. setulosus which was already reported on P. ferrugineum all other Phellinus spp are new host records [11].
Timer decay is caused by primarily enzymatic activities of microorganisms. For the first time fungal diversity of timber degrading fungi was studied in Gujarat, India. Timber Degrading Fungi belonging to Aphyllophorales are economically important as many of these cause serious damage in sawmills of Gujarat. To find out the association of the timber degrading fungi and timber decay problems in sawmills a survey was conducted during 2007 to 2011 in different sawmills of 5 districts of Gujarat i.e. Vadodara, Ahmedabad, Bharuch, Rajkot and Jamnagar. teak wood present in sawmills was infected with 14 types of fungi in which Lenzites sterioides and Trametes versicolor damaged the wood severely was reported for the first time [18]. In all 94 sawmills were surveyed, the 28 sawmills were from Vadodara, 29 from Ahmedabad, 12 from Bharuch, 21 from Rajkot and 4 from Jamnagar. Out of 94 sawmills surveyed, 84 sawmills were having timber rotting fungi associated with wood. Maximum fifteen and thirteen fungal species were observed in saw mills of Chhani road, followed by 11 in Station road, 7 in Dhabhoi road and 6 in Harni, Vadodara. Fours woods uninfected are Beyo, Marinty, Ash, and Arjun. Fourteen different types of fungi were found associated with teak, followed by seven in pinus, madhuca, Acacia nilotica, six in babul, neem, four in tamarind, Pithacoelobium and three in mango, Eucalyptus, African Mahagoni, Kapoor, Peltophoram rouxburghii, Derris pinnata wood respectively. The commonly observed timber decaying fungi were S. commune, F. flavus and G. lucidum belonging to Basidiomycota. Ascomycota members included were D. concentrica and X. polymorpha [18].
A wood decay fungus was defined based on the zone of tree that invades. N. floccosus causing heart rot was recorded in living trees of A. excelsa for the first time. The cultural characters of N. floccosus were described for the first time [19]. Fungi may cause internal decay, cankers, loosening of tissue and cell walls result into weak forks in the trunk and large branches. Tree rot may be associated with root decay, damage to foliage and fruits. Wood decay fungi isolated from Tamarindus indica were D. concentrica, S. commune, F. flavus, Irpex hydnoides, and P. fastuosus, in which D. concentrica causing canker rot is reported for the first time from India and F. flavus and I. hydnoides P. fastuosus are recorded for the first time on T. indica wood causing white rot. During canker rot, formation of bark canker and extensive internal decay of wood was observed; as a result the tree growing in the M.S. University campus became structurally unstable and broken off at the canker face. Early detection and removal of such hazardous branches of trees is advocated to avoid loss of life and property [20].
2. MATERIALS AND METHODS
2. 1. Forest area
The total forest cover in India according to the latest State of Forest Report 2003 is 67.83 m ha and this constitutes 20.64 % of the geographic area. The state of Gujarat is one of the
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progressive states in the western part of India with an area of 196,024 sq. km. While the recorded forest area is 19,393 sq.km, which is 9.89 % of the total geographical area. The production of fuel and timber is much less than the demand. The forest area which produces timber and fuel wood is only 63.5 % of the recorded area. 90 percent of forest raw material is processed by 25,000 saw mills and a larger number of cottage units, who would also lay claims on forests (Fig. 1).
Saw mills Surveyed Forest Areas visited
Fig. 1. Map of Gujarat showing surveyed areas.
Gujarat is endowed with a great diversity of natural ecosystems ranging from moist deciduous forests to pure desert conditions [21]. out of the 16 different forest types seen in India, four are found in Gujarat: 1) tropical moist deciduous forest; 2) tropical dry deciduous forest; 3) northern tropical thorn forest; 4) littoral and swamp forest. Tropical moist deciduous forests occur at the southern part of the state where the most common species found is Tectona grandis (teak), which need the moderate rainfall. Terminalia tomestosa and Anogeissus latifolia are common associates of teak in tropical moist deciduous forests. Tropical dry deciduous forests are found in central and Saurashtra region of the state. These forests show mixed growth of trees where T. grandis, Boswellia serrata, Anogeissus latifolia, Wrightia tinctoria, Euphorbia nerrifolia and Diospyros malanoxylon are very common. The area is also known for Savanna type of grass lands. Northern tropical thorn forests occur commonly in Kutch, Junagadh, Rajkot and Bhavnagar Districts and are characterized by the
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growth of Acacia arabica, Acacia nilotica, A. senegal, A. catechu, Acacia leucophloea, Capparis aphylla and Zizyphus mauratiana. Some parts of Kutch, Jamnagar and Junagadh Districts have littoral swamp forests where mangroves are found. The main species found in these forests are Avicennia marina, Rhizophora mucronata and Ceriops tagal. In spite of this geographic, climatic and vegetational diversity, information on the fungal diversity of the state is scanty and no comprehensive list is available for the Gujarat state. Our study is focused on exploration and documentation of fungal diversity of the state. It provides a preliminary checklist for the first time that lists 334 species based on available literature supplemented with our own data [22].
Ratanmahal Wildlife Sanctuary (RWS) is an area of approximately 55 sq. km consisting of dry deciduous forest. It lies between the Paanam and Orsang rivers in Limkheda taluka of Panchmahals district (74º 37' to 70º 11' East, 22º 32' to 22º 35' North). Ratanmahal forest contains 543 species of plants (119 trees, 40 shrubs, 238 herbs, 48 grasses, 87 climbers). Teak has the maximum density and comprises 19.6% of the total tree cover. Bhondaro (Lagerstroemia parviflora), constitutes 15.7% of the total composition. The princely state of Rajpipla was situated largely between two important rivers of western India i.e. the Narmada and the Tapti, with the Satpura range in the south. Spanning an area of over 1500 sq miles (4,000 km²), of which 600 sq miles (1550 km²) were forests and the rest fertile agricultural plains and river valleys, Rajpipla grew to be one of the most prosperous princely states in Gujarat, second only to Baroda. It was also famous for its agate mines. It was situated at 73°31'12"E Long and 21°51'31" N Lat. It was often referred to as the 'Taj of Gujarat'. The palace was set in a 151- acre estate, with well laid out formal gardens, mango and lime orchards. The building, including the outhouses, covered almost an acre – 4320 square yards. The palace was presently the Gujarat Forest Rangers College. In and around the palace 100 P. ferrugineum trees were planted as fencing.
2. 2. Identification of fungi
2. 2. 1. Stains and Mounting medium
2. 2. 1. 1. Lactic acid in glycerol
Although less effective than lacto-phenol for cleaning plant tissues, lactic acid has similar properties and can be used neat or combined with glycerol and water for routine examinations of many fungi. (Composition for 100 ml.){Lactic acid: 25 ml, Glycerol: 50 ml and Distilled water: 25 ml}
2. 2. 1. 2. Cotton blue in lactic acid
This is widely used as standard mordant which rapidly stains the cytoplasm of fungal cells. Permanent mounts can be prepared by sealing with nail varnish. Add cotton blue powder to lactic acid. Heat in a glass beaker and stir until dissolved. Add to cool then filter to remove any sediment. (Composition for 100 ml.){Cotton blue: 0.01 gm and Lactic acid (85%): 100 ml}
2. 2. 1. 3. Potassium hydroxide (KOH)
Used at 5-10 % potassium hydroxide is useful for softening the fungal tissue. After clearing, the KOH can be washed off with water using a dropper or pipette and replaced with
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stain. A 5 % solution is prepared as follows: Weigh out 5gms of potassium hydroxide pellets. Add to distilled water in a glass beaker. Stir until dissolved. (Composition for 100 ml.){Potassium hydroxide: 5 gm, Dist. water: 100 ml
2. 2. 1. 4. Melzer’s regent
Mainly used for testing the amyloid reaction in sporulating structures of Basidiomycetes. Also clears and stains the fungal tissues including cell walls and can be used for general examination of fungal structures. Prepare in a fume cupboard. Dissolvepotassium iodide in distilled water. Add iodine and leave to dissolve for 24 hours. Add chloral hydrate and stir until dissolved. Mix thoroughly. (Composition for 100 ml.){Cholral hydrate: 100 gm, Iodine: 1.5 gm, Potassium iodide: 5 gm and Distilled water: 100 ml}
2. 2. 2. Microscopic observation
Fruiting bodies of the lignicolous fungi were collected from its natural habitat, growing on wooden logs. Standard methods were followed for collection, preservation, macroscopic and microscopic studies [23,24]. The morphological features of the fungi were recorded from fresh specimen. Materials were collected in clean polythene bags from different locations and brought to the laboratory. Basidiomes were studied using macroscopic (eg. size, colour, number of pores/mm, length of tubes) and microscopic (presence or absence of structures, dimensions, vegetative and reproductive characters [25]. To observe basidia and setae, free hand sections were taken. For the clear observation of setae, trammel setae and setal hyphae, lacto phenol cotton blue was used as staining and mounting medium. Xanthochoric reaction was also tested using potassium hydroxide solution. The various details of specimens were compared with Hymenochaetaceae of India [5], Indian Polyporaceae [4], CBS Aphyllophorales database, New Zealand Fungi database, and Species Fungorum. Certain specimens were sent to the Royal Botanical Garden, Kew for final confirmation. These fungi are kept in fungal collection of Botany Department, MS University of Baroda, India.
2. 2. 3. Anatomical characters
For the anatomical study, the basidiocarps were fixed in FAA, processed in TBA series, embedded in wax and blocks were prepared (Johansen 1940). Serial sections of 15 μm were taken on rotary microtome. These sections were stained in 0.5% toluidine blue in 1% borax solution.
2. 3. Isolation
The fungi associated with the samples were isolated. Wood chips measuring 5 mm × 5 mm × 1 mm were aseptically removed from the samples and transferred to Petri plates containing 2 different cultural media: 2 % malt extract agar amended with 250 μg streptomycin sulphate per mL and PDA medium amended with 250 μg streptomycin sulphate per mL. The first medium was intended to isolate Basidiomycetes fungi and the second medium to specifically isolate total fungi. Eight pieces of wood were removed from each disc and placed in 2 plates. The plates were incubated at 25 °C for 7days. Once fungal colonies formed in the agar plates, each colony was transferred to a new agar slant to grow as a pure culture. The cultural and growth characters were described based on Stalpers [26] and Nobles [27].
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3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
It is evident from Tables 1that 69 species of Lignicolous macro fungi belonging to Ascomycetes and Basidiomycetes fungi reported from Gujarat, India. A total of 69 species Lignicolous macro fungi belong to 15 families and 30 general. These wood deteriorating fungi were belonging to the families Xylariaceae, Agaricaceae Coprinaceae, Pleurotaceae Auricularreae, Bondarzewiaceae Ganodermataceae, Shizophyllaceae, Stecherinaceae, Hymenochaetaceae, Lachnocladiaceae, Schizoporaceae, Fomitopsidaceae, Polyporaceae Stereaceae. All the lignicolous fungi were new to Gujarat, India. For the first time Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Sing. Agaricus silvaticus Schaeff. Coprinus plicatilis (Fr.) Fr. Pleurotus pulmonarius (Fries) Quélet, belonging to Agaricales were reported from Gujarat, India. The families with one species are Coprinaceae, Pleurotaceae, Stereaceae, Bondarzewiaceae, Schizophyllaceae, Schizoporaceae, Lachnocladiaceae and Steccherinaceae. Xylariaceae have 3 genera and 6 species, Agaricaceae have 2 species, Auricularreae also have 2 species, Ganodermataceae have 4 species, Hymenochaetaceae have 2 genera like Aurificaria and Phellinus 19 species, Fomitopsidaceae have 2 genera 6 species and Polyporaceae have 12 genera 22 species of Lignicolous macro fungi. The family with largest genera is Polyporaceae ( Plate I to V).
Morphological and anatomical features of the basidiocarp and the cultural characteristic features of the two fungi S. commune Fries and F. flavus (Klot.) Ryv. have been investigated. S. commune is a split gilled fungus with Hymenophore confined to the underside of the basidiocarp while F. flavus is stipeless attached to the substratum and with a uni-lateral hymenophore. The anatomical features and cultural characters of the two fungi have been discussed in detail. Both the fungi cause white rot and are laccase positive [28]. But in the present paper the lignicolous fungi were identified based on morphological, cultural, and anatomical features. White rot causing fungi Inonotus hispidus (Bull.) P. Karst. delignifing the wood of A. excelsa [29]. Earlier the fungus was reported from east Africa but N. floccosus (Bres.) Ryv. was new report for India [8]. In the present paper lignicolous fungi were also new to Gujarat, India.
Table 1. A check list of Lignicolous fungi from different forests of Gujarat.

S. No Name of the Lignicolous fungi

1

*Daldinia concentrica

(Bolton) Cesati and de Notaris

Family Ascomycetes Xylariaceae

2 D. sacchari Dargan & Thind

Xylariaceae

3

*Hypoxylon rubiginosum

Xylariaceae

Characteristics and habit
Ascocarps are ball like rounded or hemispherical initially brown, dense, spherical, sessile, aggregated, smooth. Ascocarps turbinate, with short, stout stipe, solitary, with inconspicuous to conspicuous surface vinaceous buff to
grayish sepia, dull reddish brown granules immediately beneath surface,
Stromata effused-pulvinate surface grayish sepia; brown granules

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4 Xylaria allantoidea (Berk.) Fr.,

5

X. feejeensis (Berk.) Fr.

6 *X. polymorpha (Dead Man’s fingers)

Xylariaceae Xylariaceae Xylariaceae

immediately beneath surface and between perithecia,
Stromata solitary or in small clusters, only branched near the base, cylindrical allantoid to clavate, Exterior dark brown to black with age. with associated with
dung Stroma erect, cylindrical, brown, stalked stromata; stroma brown, rough, stalk, short; perithecia rounded, few in stroma, globous, some are
flattened, The fungus produces erect finger like ascostorma, tough; shaped like a finger but occasionally flattened; usually with a rounded tip; at first coated with a pale dust of conidia, soon blackish with a pale
tip and eventually black overall.

Basidiomycetes

Agaricales

It is completely white, convex to broadly

7

Agaricus bisporus

(Lange)Sing

Agaricaceae

convex; dry; smooth. scattered to gregarious on manure soil, compost

piles,

Pileus cream to perfect beige coloured,

8

Agaricus silvaticus Schaeff.

Agaricaceae

convex when young, expanded and

gibbous in old. Surface fibrillose

Cap cylindric-ovoid expanding to

9

Coprinus plicatilis (Fr.) Fr.

Coprinaceae

shallowly convex, buff with cinnamon centre, soon deeply grooved and greying

from margin inwards.

cap becoming flat or somewhat

depressed; lung-shaped to semicircular;

10 Pleurotus pulmonarius (Fries) Quélet,

Pleurotaceae

growing in shelf-like clusters on dead and living wood of hardwoods; causing a

white rot; beginning in summer widely

distributed in North America

Fruiting body was gymnocarpous with

the sporiferous part of the fruit body

restricted or limited only to the underside

11 *Schizophyllum commune Fr. Schizophyllaceae

of the cap. The hymenophore was

confined to the lower side. The upper

surface was covered with small white to

grayish hairs. Hymenophore was gilled.

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Aphyllophorales

The basidiocarps are fleshy, much

*Auricularia auricula (L.)

twisted, ear- shaped, several lobed,

12

Underwood

Auriculariaceae

sessile, thin gelatinous, sterile surface

curling over hymenium, red-brown when

moist.

13

A. polytricha (Montagne)

Auriculariaceae Basidiocarps frequently were having a

Sacc.

strongly convex dorsal surface.

Sporophore annual, sessile, imbricate,

fleshy. Upper surface light yellow, the

14 Bondarzewia berkleyii (Fr.) Bondarzewiaceae surface becomes dark yellow brown due

Sing.

to heavy deposition of spores from fruit

bodies situated above. hymenial surface

mustared yellow towards margin.

Basidiocarps annual, sessile, effused-

reflexed; pilei often in imbricate clusters.

15

*Hypodontia comtopsis

Schizoporaceae

upper surface pale brownish to gray,

Burdsall and Nakasone

often green due to algae, pore surface

pale huff on young specimens, becoming

darker with age.

Basidiome effuse, membranaceous to

*Vararia pallescens (Schw.)

soft crustose, often layered, not

16

Rogers and Jacks.

Lachnocladiaceae

separable. Hymenial surface even,

cream-coloured to pale ochraceous. On

wood of angiosperms

Sporophore perennial, sessile, applanate,

17

*Ganoderma applanatum

Ganodermataceae single. upper surface brown, Hymeneal

(Pers. ex. Wallr.) Pat.

surface white when fresh turning light

brown on drying,

Sporphore annual, sessile, applanate,

semicircular, corky, soft when fresh,

18

G. colossum (Fr.) Bers

Ganodermataceae light in weight, upper surface glabrous,

semiglossy, yellow, laccate, hymenial

surface white when fresh, pale brown

when dry.

Basidiocap annual, stipe lateral, aplanate,

covered with cuticle, pileus rusty brown

19

G. curtisii, (Berk.) Murill, Ganodermataceae to grayish brown, golden brown zones,

glabrous. Hymenium rusty brown to

grayish brown with yellow line of zone.

The sporophores perennial, stiptiate

20

G. lucidum (Leyss.) Karst. Ganodermataceae

corky becoming woody later. stalk

lateral, upper surface shiny with laccate

crust, reddish brown, smooth.

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Basidiocap annual, stiptiate, funnel

Aurificaria indica (Massee)

shaped, thin leathery, upper surface is

21 Reid var. leucocephala var. Hymenochaetaceae yellow in fresh. Hymenium golden

nov,

brown to blackish brown, pores visible to

naked eye,

Basidiacarps perennial, pileate, solitary,

22 Phellinus adamantinus (Berk.) Hymenochaetaceae applanate, pileus glabrous, dark brown to

Ryv.

grayish black, pore surface grayish to

deep brown

Basidiocarp perennial, seesile, hoof

shaped to ungulate, pilear surface

23 P. badius (Berk.: Cke) Cunn., Hymenochaetaceae yellowish brown when young brownish when maturity. sterie pore surface dark

brown glancing tubes ferruginous brown,

paler than pore surface,

Basidiocarp annual, effused- reflexed,

24 P. caryophyllii (Racib.) Cunn. Hymenochaetaceae semicircular, pilear surface rusty brown, velvety, Pore surface rusty brown, with

sterile reddish brown border;

Basidiocarps perennial, sessile,

P. conchatus (Pers. : Fr.)

imbricate, semicircular; upper surface

25

Quel.,

Hymenochaetaceae yellowish brown, tomentose, with age

becoming black Pore surface dark

brown;

Basidiocarps perennial, usually solitary,

26

P. extensus (Lev.) Pat.

Hymenochaetaceae sessile, pilear surface reddish brown to

reddish black, velvety reddish brown;

pore surface dark redissh brown;

Sporophore perennial, solitary, pileate

broadly attached, consistency woody

hard when dry. pileus dimidiate, flat to

27

P. fastuosus (Lév.) Ryv. Hymenochaetaceae convex, upper surface dark brown, rusty

brown to almost black and pore layer

golden-yellow to cinnamon or rusty

brown, more fuscous in older specimens,

Basidiocarp annual, imbricate, sessile,

28

*P. gilvus (Schw. Fr.) Pat. Hymenochaetaceae coriaceous, Upper surface golden brown,

azonate, Pore surface dark purplish

brown, fertile up to the margin,

Basidiocarps perennial, pileate,

subapplanate, sessile, broadly attached,

29

P. hoehnelii (Bres.) Ryv., Hymenochaetaceae woody hard on drying, pilear surface

glabrous, encrusted, rusty brown. Pore

surface golden brown.

30 P. linteus (Berk. Curt.) Teng. Hymenochaetaceae

Basidiocarps perennial, solitary to

imbricate, sessile, broadly to narrowly

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Lignicolous Macro Fungi from Gujarat, India