Cheap Scalable Arduino CNC (Plotter, Mill, 3D Printer)


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Cheap Scalable Arduino CNC (Plotter, Mill, 3D Printer...)
by mendelecha1
In this Instructable I'll show you how to make a cheap scalable CNC machine controlled by Arduino. My printer has a usable volume of 1500x1000x200mm. It will provide a computer controlled plate where you can add any kind of tool for your application: laser, mill, drilling machine, 3D printer head, pencil… In order to maximize customization capabilities and reduce costs:
1. Most parts are 3D printed 2. Open source hardware / software 3. Tube profiles work as Rails If you are looking for a CNC but don’t want a single purpose thousand-dollar machine, this is your project!! Be sure to watch the video above, and if you like it please consider subscribing to my channel which has been recently created and will be updated with new amazing projects. Before starting you should know the usable length, width and height you want for your machine. The less heigth (Z) the better. This project is based on Allted's design CC BY-NC 3.0
Step 1: Tools I Used
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In order to follow this instructable, it is supposed that you have access to a 3d printer or 3d printing service.
You will use:
3d Printer Screwdriver Allen wrench key set Pliers Cutting pliers or scissors
Material required:
1.8Kg filament (ABS is more durable, PLA is easier to print) 1 x Ramps 1.4 1 x Arduino Mega 2560 4 x GT2 16T 53x 608 Bearings (2-RS, Z, ZZ) 5 x Nema 17 Stepper (Recommended ≥2A) 3 x Stepper Drivers A4988 12V 3A power source Bunch of Zip Ties
3d printed parts:
Link to stl of parts (Thingiverse) (Allted's design)
X, Y and Z dimension dependable materials:
25mm OD steel tube: 3 x Rails X = Usable Width + 264mm 3 x Rails Y = Usable Depth + 264mm 2 x Z Rails = Usable Height + 190mm 4 x Legs = Usable Height – 13mm 1 x Allthread = Usable Height + 76mm
GT2 belt (2 x Usable Width + 2x Usable Depth) Wiring to extend stepper Wires (at least Usable Width + Usable Depth + Usable Height) 1x Allthread = Usable Height + 76mm
Bolts-nuts:
1 x M8 Threaded Rod 1 x M8 X 130 12x M8 X 65 2 x M8 X 40 28x M8 X 30
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43x M8 Nylock Nuts 1 x M8x 25 Coupling nut 19x M3 X 10 57x M4 X 20 57x M4 Nylock nuts
Step 2: Legs
To make one leg: First, take the “Botom corner” part, and fix it to “Lock_Corner” part with a M4x20mmbolt and nut. Beware of the joint shapeto match them. Take one of the leg tubes (Usable Height – 13mm long). Insert one edge of the tube in the “IE_Foot_Bottom” hole and fix it with another M4x20mmbolt and nut tightly. Insert the other edge of the tube in the “Lock_Corner” hole and fix it (M4x20mm + nut) keeping the bolt loose.
WELL DONE!! You have made one leg! Repeat this process with a second leg. Then you have to make two more legs using “BotomM_Corner” and “LockM_corner” which are symmetrical to the non-M parts. Then you have four legs to support the machine.
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Step 3: Carriage
Take the “Roller” part
Use three M8x30mm bolts to fix three 608 bearings. It will be easier to adjust at the end of the projects if nuts are facing to each other as in the photograph. Don’t tight too much, just to fix the bearing in position. Adding the “RollerPlate”:
Then take the “RollerPlate” part, four bearings and two M8x60 bolts. Insert two bolts on the “RollerPlate” leaving the span rings of the “RollerPlate” in the opposite side of the bolt head. Insert one bearings in each bolt. You must insert the bolts with the “RollerPlate”-bearing sandwich in the two remaining holes of the “Roller”. Pay attention to the direction of the “Roller”, the flat face with two rings should face the bearings. While inserting the bolt put another bearing in each bolt. Add a lock nut to the edge of each bolt. Repeat this process to have two “Roller” and two “RollerM” completed.
Insert the rollers on their rails (one "Roller" and "RollerM" for X xis and another pair for Y axis). You should insert them with pressure and then, the four rollers should slide easily and equally.
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Step 4: Structure
Prepare the structure: Put the legs assembled in step 1 in an approximate location. Over the legs add the Y axis tube (rail) with the roller mounted. The "RollerPlate" must be facing outwards the machine, don't forget it!
Secure it: Add a "Spacer_Corner" over each leg on top of Y axis tube and put the X tube over it. That spacer will secure the X axis tube. Place the "Top_Corner" and secure it with four M3x20mm bolt and nuts. Don't tighten them because calibration will be required further.
Verification: Measure the distances between legs (or "Bottom_Corner" parts) to assure that in both X axes the legs are equally distanced. Repeat it for Y axis.
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Step 5: Z Axis
Nut traps: Take the two "Nut Trap" parts and four M4 nuts Insert the nuts into the holes. Put the locking face (the one with rubber) outwards.
Tubes: Take the two tubes for the y axis (Usable Height + 190mm). Make two holes on each tube coinciding with the "Nut_Trap" holes (at 22,5mm and 75mm from the bottom).
Assembly Insert one “Nut_Trap” in each tube until holes coincide. Take the “ToolMount” and fix it to the tubes with four M4x20mm bolts.
Z-lower: Take the "Z-Lower" part. Insert it in the tubes. Put the bearing housing facing opposite to the tool mount side. Pay attention on how it is mounted, the edge if facing to the back of the tool mount. Insert a 608 bearing in the housing.
Z-Motor: Take the "Z-Motor" part and a Nema17 stepper. Attatch it with three M3x10mm bolts Take the "Pineapple_coupler" and attatch it to the motor shaft with two M4x20 bolts and nuts.
Full Z assembly: Insert the mounted Z-motor on the tubes, leaving some mm to the pineapple couplet to freely turn. Then insert the threaded rod in the bearing and fix it to the "Pineapple_Coupler". Fix the "Z-Lower" and "Z-Motor" With four M4x20mm bolts.
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Step 6: Middle Pre-assembly
XYZ pre-assembly: Take the "XYZ" part, 4 bearings and 4 M8x30mm bolts and lock nuts. Insert the bolts-bearing stack as shown in image. Look how bolts are inserted. This bolt will not be touched. Assure bolts are tightened and that bearing turn freely. Repeat it for the other XYZ part.
XY pre-assembly: Take the "XY" part, 4 bearings and 4 M8x30mm bolts and lock nuts. Insert the bolts-bearing stack in the housings, as shown in image. This bolt will not be touched. Assure bolts are tightened and that bearing turn freely. Insert one more bolt-bearing.
Nut-Lock pre-assembly: Take the "Nut_Lock" part, Coupling nut and one M4x20mm bolt and lock nut. Insert the Coupling nut in the housings, as shown in image Align Coupling and lock nut faces. Then Lock it with the bolt-nut. This bolt will not be touched. Assure bolt is tightened.
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