Lightning & Surge Protection for Solar PV Plants


Download Lightning & Surge Protection for Solar PV Plants


Preview text

Lightning & Surge Protection for Solar PV Plants

Lightning & Surge Protection for Solar PV Plants

Solar Farms - such systems by design are located outdoors and as such are susceptible
to the damaging effects of lightning
strike

With the growing awareness of global warming and the need for effective energy conservation, we are increasingly looking to new sources of renewable and eco-friendly energy. One of the front-runners in this search for ‘safe’ power is the use of photovoltaic (PV) and/or solar thermal sources - in other words, Solar Power. Such systems by design are located outdoors, and as such are susceptible to the damaging effects of lightning strike. Surge currents and surge voltages constitute a severe threat for PV systems. To ensure safe and reliable operation, these systems must be protected with suitable direct lightning protection system, earthing and surge protection device.
Solar Photovoltaic (PV) plants are always wide spread and isolated extentions or roof top installations. The cost of the equipment is high and their damage is detrimental to power supply, especially if they are connected to the distribution network. Their working is controlled by sensitive electronic equipment that may be severely affected by transient over voltages. Therefore, they are high risk installations for lightning protection.

LIGHTNING & SURGE PROTECTION FOR SOLAR PV PLANT

For such a complex type of installation as a solar power plant, it is necessary to make an assessment of the damage risk due to lightning strikes according to IEC 62305-2 (EN 62305-2), the result to be taken into account on designing. In case of a solar power plant the aim is to protect both the building and the PV array against damage by fire (direct lightning strike) and the electrical & electronic systems (inverters, remote diagnostics system, generator) against the effects of lightning electromagnetic impulses (LEMP)
Most of the solar module manufacturers offer a warranty of 20 years or more on their products. The cost of such devices is then calculated on this very long period. However those installations are very regularly exposed to lightnings and overvoltages, which can considerably reduce the desired life expectancy. The use of adapted surge protections is then highly recommended.
Several aspects have to be considered to evaluate the risk of “Lightning and Overvoltages” :

The more the solar panel field is expanded, the more the risk of “lightning” issue is important.
The risk is multiple: direct effect (lightning impact directly on the modules) and indirect effect (overvoltages on modules, on the converter/inverter and other connections).
When the Photovoltaic devices are located on industrial sites, the risk of operation overvoltages should be taken into account as well.
The risks level is directly linked to the density of local lightning and the exposure of the lines.

Lightning & Surge Protection for Solar PV Plants

Lightning Protection International Pty Ltd is a fully owned Australian manufacturer and supplier of direct strike lightning, surge and transient protection equipment and earthing products to a wide range of industries throughout the world.

DIRECT STRIKE LIGHTNING PROTECTION

STORMASTER Early Streamer Emission (ESE) Air Terminals have been tested in official independent laboratories in order to obtain their advance time, for establishing their protection radius and to certify that they are able to withstand lightning currents. Stormaster ESE air terminals are tested and certified as per NF C 17 102 (2011) standard. Also it is tested and certified from CPRI (Central Power Research Institute), Government of India.
Considering Level 1 (the most exigent), a single air terminal can protect a surface of approximately 20,000m2. For achieving this protection, air terminals have to be installed 6 meters above the solar cells height, however they may cause a problem of shadows. In order to minimize shadow effect, it is recommended to install the ESE air terminals around the photovoltaic plant perimeter. In this way, the shadow effect on solar cells are avoided as much as possible.
For a better performance it is recommended to place the air terminal on the 11mtrs self-standing masts so that the ESE air terminals reach a sufficient height over the solar cells.
An Early streamer Emission (ESE) air terminal is characterized by its response to lightning approach, going ahead any other element within its protection are and thus driving current to earth through a safe path. The Stormaster Early Streamer Emission air terminal uses the naturally occurring electrical field to complete the timely release of an upward streamer. This process provides for a safe and efficient method of controlling dangerous lightning energy at a preferred point.
As a thunder storm gathers overhead, the ambient electrical field surrounding the Stormaster ESE begins to rise in voltage. Upon the approach of a downleader towards the protected area, there is a rapid increase in the electric field which initiates the triggering of an upward streamer from the Stormaster ESE terminal. The concept of earlier allows for a larger or enhanced area of protection to be provided by the Stormaster ESE in comparison to a conventional rod. With the release of the upward streamer from the finial tip earlier than other competing structural points, the Stormaster ESE terminal becomes a preferred point for the capture of the lightning discharge within the protected area. It is fully autonomous, maintenance-free and its performance can be verified at any moment.
LIGHTNING STRIKE RECORDER (LSR1)

PROTECTION RADIUS - Rp (m)

h=height of Stormaster 2 4 5 6 10 15 20 45 60 80 100 ESE terminal above the area to be protected (m)

Protection Level I (Very High)

Stormaster ESE 15

13 25 32 32 34 35 35 35 35 35 35

Stormaster ESE 30

19 38 48 48 49 50 50 50 50 50 50

Stormaster ESE 50

27 55 68 69 69 70 70 70 70 70 70

Stormaster ESE 60

31 63 79 79 79 80 80 80 80 80 80

Protection Level II (High)

Stormaster ESE 15

15 30 37 38 40 42 44 44 44 44 44

Stormaster ESE 30

22 44 55 55 57 58 59 59 59 59 59

Stormaster ESE 50

30 61 76 76 77 79 79 79 79 79 79

Stormaster ESE 60

35 69 86 87 88 89 89 89 89 89 89

Protection Level III (Medium)

Stormaster ESE 15

18 36 45 46 49 52 55 60 60 60 60

Stormaster ESE 30

25 51 63 64 66 69 71 75 75 75 75

Stormaster ESE 50

35 69 86 87 88 90 92 95 95 95 95

Stormaster ESE 60

39 78 97 97 99 101 102 105 105 105 105

Protection Level IV (Standard)

Stormaster ESE 15

20 41

Stormaster ESE 30

29 57

Stormaster ESE 50

38 76

Stormaster ESE 60

43 85

51 52 56 60 63 73 75 75 75 71 72 75 78 81 89 90 90 90 95 96 98 100 102 109 110 110 110 107 107 109 111 113 119 120 120 120

Protection Performance A protection radius (Rp) of a Stormaster ESE terminal is calculated using the following formula as defined in NF 17-102 (September 2011), namely:
Rp (h) = 2rh - h2+ (2r + ) for h 5 m and Rp = h x Rp5 / 5 for 2 h < 5 m Where h = Stormaster height relative to the area being
protected (m) Rp5= value of Rp from Eqn. (1) when h = 5 m
r = 20 m for protection level I (Very High protection) 30 m for protection level II (High Protection) 45 m for protection level III (Medium protection) 60 m for protection level IV (Standard protection)
and = Stormaster height advantage according to the Stormaster model installed:
Choice: Stormaster ESE 15: = 15 m Stormaster ESE 30: = 30 m Stormaster ESE 50: = 50 m Stormaster ESE 60: = 60 m

have developed a LSR which is designed for easy mounting on a downconductor to effectively count the number of lightning srikes captured by the Stormaster ESE Terminal. When the lightning rod receive an impact of the lightning strike, discharge counter detects the energy dissipated by the down conductor, thereby incrementing the number. The LSR1 operates by sensing current by means of an inductive pick up loop. With the voltage impulse detected by the current transformer (CT) a trigger to the pulse counter then turns the counter to register the lightning event. The equipment does not require either external or internal power supply, as it is electromechanical and uses the power of the induced current dissipated through the down conductor.

Features • 7 Digits

• Up to 9,999,999 counts

• IP 67 enclosure

• Testable using LSR-Tester

Lightning & Surge Protection for Solar PV Plants

EARTHING SYSTEM

Earthing is essential for stabilizing the voltage of the equipment with respect to the ground during its normal operation. It is a common practice that the solar cells have a good earthing system. It is highly recommended to bond all the earthings, that is, that a general earthing network exists where all solar cells are connected. Besides, metallic masses (frames, fenders, supports and covers) should be also connected to the earthing according to UNE-EN 61173 in order to achieve the equipotentialization of all the elements thus avoiding differences of potential and dangerous sparks.
The installation of a radial earthing arrangement is recommended for each lightning protection earth, the radial earthing configuration provides an effective means for the safe dissipation of the lightning energy into the ground mass. All individual lightning earths should be bonded together in a ring earth arrangement to minimise ground loops and potential differences under transient conditions. Compliance to NF C17-102 (2011) requires an earth DC resistance reading of less than 10 ohms for the lightning earths. If installing either a radial earthing system or grid type earthing system it is recommended that all earthing conductors be installed at a depth of between 500mm and 750mm (recommended) with a maximum depth of 1000mm. In order to further assist in improving the earth resistance of the system, it is recommended that the excavated soil of poor quality (rocky/sandy) shall be replaced with the soil of a good quality (garden loam) prior to backfilling the trench. Key components of a lightning earth include: Earth Rods Copper bonded (threaded or unthreaded), Solid Copper or Stainless Steel. LPI Resistance Lowering Compound (LPI RESLO) The requirement for a low resistance is extremely important with the installation of any earthing system. LPI’s RESLO provides the ability to

dramatically reduce soil resistivity even in soils with average electrical conductivity. LPI RESLO is supplied in 10 Kgs packaged bags to suit the site application.
RESLO comprises specifically selected compounds, which possess excellent electrical conductivity. When RESLO is mixed with water and poured around the earthing system and surrounding soil, the powder and water react to form a hardened mass within an earthing system. RESLO will not wash away under seasonal conditions and therefore provides a permanent presence in working to improve and maintain the integrity of an earthing system. Given that RESLO does not wash away, the requirement to re-treat the soil as is the case with other enhancing compounds is eliminated.

LPI Ground Resistance Improvement Powder (LPI GRIP)

The requirement for a low resistance is extremely important with the installation of any earthing system. LPI’s GRIP provides the ability to substantially reduce soil resistivity in soils of the poorest electrical conductivity such as rocky ground or sandy soils. LPI GRIP is supplied in two kit sizes - A 10 Kgs kit comprises two 5 Kg containers; one 5 Kg kit contains a copper compound kit holds a mix of compounds which assist (Hardener).

whilst in the

the other 5 Kg mixing process

When GRIP is mixed with water and poured around the earthing system and surrounding soil, the powder and water react to form a gelatinous hygroscopic mass which forms an integral part of an earthing system, this effectively increases the surface area of the earthing system in contact with the surrounding soil.

GRIP will not wash away under seasonal conditions and therefore provides a permanent presence in working to improve and maintain the integrity of an earthing system. Given that GRIP does not wash away, the requirement to re-treat the soil is eliminated.

Lightning & Surge Protection for Solar PV Plants

Ltd. belongs since its establishment in 1994 to major producers of surge protection devices in Europe. The company obtained ISO 9001 certificate in 1997. The production of surge protection devices is a specific area with great demands on professional knowledge of the company’s management as well as the production and research staff. Introduction of new technologies and using the latest testing equipment enable engineers to extend their technical knowledge.
Hakel’s products are exported world wide. The surge protection product range offered by Hakel company enables customers to apply the products easily in every industry, offices or households. Hakel’s products are used in the whole industrial world, offices and institutes of any kind so they can safely protect all kinds of communication, data and coaxial systems against surge. Following the continual electronic development helps Hakel to achieve higher standards and better technical parameters. That is one of the reasons why Hakel stands among the world market leaders. Products are tested according to standard EN 61 643-11 and IEC 61643-1.

LIGHTNING & SURGE PROTECTION FOR PHOTOVOLTAIC (PV) SYSTEMS

The guaranteed service life of 20 years or more is offered for their system by most of the solar module manufacturers. The cost of the modules are justified by calculating this long period of operation. However PV installations are very much exposed to the lightnings and surges/transients. Not only house owners install a PV system on their rooftop but also private companies make more and more investments in shared systems, which are erected on large-surface roofs, on traffic structures or unused open areas.
Because of the big space requirements of the photovoltaic generator, PV systems are especially threatened by lightning discharges during thunderstorms. Causes for surges in PV systems are inductive or capacitive voltages deriving from lightning discharges as well as lightning surges and switching operations in the upstream power supply system. Lightning surges in the PV system can damage PV modules and inverters. This can have serious consequences for the operation of the system. It may leads to high repair costs and system failure can result in considerable profit cuts for the operator of the plant.
Since the surge protection device shunts the transient/surges to the earth, a low impedance good conductivity earthing, at the same potential is critical for the surge arresters to function

properly. Equipotential bonding has to be done for the protection scheme to work efficiently.
HAKEL, a Czech Republic company offers a complete range of surge protection solutions specifically for the photovoltaic market. HAKEL surge protection devices are high performance solutions complaint with the international standards in order to ensure the efficiency and reliability of the photovoltaic system.
Recommendations of Surge Protection Device (SPD):
1. AC SPD: The output side of the PV inverter where the AC power supply is fed to the load. Depending upon the power supply system, Single or Three phase AC SPD is recommended.
2. DC SPD: The power supply which is fed into the inverter is of DC which flows from PV modules and are exposed to the lightning & induced surges. Suitable DC SPD ratings (200, 400, 600, 800, 1000V DC, etc) is recommended.
3. DATALINE SPD: Some of the PV installations are connected to the central monitoring system through the datalines (transmitters, receivers, modems, etc) which may get effected by the lightning & induced surges. Suitable DATALINE SPD is recommended.

Lightning & Surge Protection for Solar PV Plants

Max. continuous operating voltage Open circuit voltage of PV generator Short circult with stand Lightning impulse current (10/350) - charge - specific energy Application Nominal discharge current (8/20) Voltage protection level at In Response time Weight

UCPV UOCSTC ISCWPV Iimp Q W/R
ln Up tA m

LIGHTNING & SURGE ARRESTERS - VARISTOR
SPC PV is surge arrester type 1+2 according to EN 61643-11. It is designed for protection of positive and negative busbars of Photovoltaic systems against the surge effects. These arresters are recommended for use in the Lightning Protection Zones Concept at the boundaries of LPZ 0-1 (according to IEC 1312-1 and EN 62305). Particular varistor sectors connectd between terminals L+, L-and PE are equipped with internal disconnectors which are activated when varistors fail (overheat). Failure indication of these disconnectors is partly mechanical (by red signaling target) and partly remote monitoring (by potential free switching contacts).

SPC PV 600 DS 650 V DC UOCSTC
SPC PV 800 DS 880 V DC UOCSTC
SPC PV 1000 DS 1000 V DC UOCSTC
Max. continuous operating voltage Open circuit voltage of PV generator Short circult with stand Lightning impulse current (10/350) - charge - specific energy Maximal discharge currrent (8/20) Nominal discharge current (8/20) Voltage protection level at In (L/PE) Response time Application Weight

UCPV UOCSTC ISCWPV Iimp Q W/R Imax In Up tA
m

LIGHTNING & SURGE ARRESTERS - VARISTOR
PIVM PV is lightning and surge arrester type 1+2 according to EN 61643-11, EN 60530-11 and UTE C 61-740-51. Complete device consists of a base part and pluggable modules. These arresters are recommended for use in the Lightning Protection Zones Concept at the boundaries of LPZ 0-2 (according to IEC 1312-1 and EN 62305) for equipotential bonding of positive and negative busbars of photovoltaic systems and elimination of transient overvoltage that originate during atmospheric discharges of switching processes. Failure indication of these disconnectors is partly visual (Green-Ok/Red-Fault) and partly remote monitoring by potential free switching contacts (only PIVM PV* DS type)

PIVM PV 600 DS 600 V DC UOCSTC
PIVM PV 800 DS 800 V DC UOCSTC
PIVM PV 1000 DS 1050 V DC UOCSTC
Lightning & Surge Protection for Solar PV Plants
SURGE ARRESTERS - VARISTOR
SPUM PV is surge arrester type 2 according to EN 61643-11. Complete device consists of a base part and pluggable modules. These arresters are recommended for use in the Lightning Protection Zones Concept at the boundaries of LPZ 1-2 (according to IEC 1312-1 and EN 62305 ) for equipotential bonding of positive and negative busbars of photovoltaic systems and elimination of transient overvoltage that originate during atmospheric discharges or switching processes. Failure indication of these disconnectors is partly visual (Green-Ok/ Red-Fault) and partly remote monitoring by potential free switching contacts (only SPUM PV* DS type).

Max. continuous operating voltage Max. discharge current (8/20) Nominal discharge current (8/20) Application Voltage protection level at In Response time Max. back-up fuse Weight
Max. continuous operating voltage Max. discharge current (8/20) Nominal discharge current (8/20) Application Voltage protection level at In Response time Max. back-up fuse Weight

SPUM PV 200 DS

UC 200 V DC Imax 40 kA In 15 kA
L+L-, L+/PE, L-/PE

Up <0.95 kV tA <25 ns
125 AgL/gG

m

300 g

SPUM PV 200 - 24 181

SPUM PV 200 DS - 24 081

UC Imax In
Up tA
m

TYPE
2

CLASS LPZ
II 1 2

+80°C 
-40°C

IP
20

home industry

SPUM PV 400 DS 400 V DC 40 kA 20 kA L+L-, L+/PE, L-/PE <1.7 kV <25 ns 125 AgL/gG 300 g SPUM PV 400 - 24 182 SPUM PV 400 DS - 24 082
SPUM PV 800 DS 800 V DC 40 kA 20 kA L+L-, L+/PE, L-/PE <2.8 kV <25 ns 125 AgL/gG 300 g SPUM PV 800 - 24 184 SPUM PV 800 DS - 24 084

SPUM PV 600 DS 600 V DC 40 kA 15 kA L+L-, L+/PE, L-/PE <2.5 kV <25 ns 125 AgL/gG 300 g SPUM PV 600 - 24 183 SPUM PV 600 DS - 24 083
SPUM PV 1000 DS 1000 V DC 40 kA 15 kA L+L-, L+/PE, L-/PE <3.5 kV <25 ns 125 AgL/gG 300 g SPUM PV 1000 - 24 185 SPUM PV 1000 DS - 24 085

HUF 003 - VOLTAGE & FREQUENCY PROTECTOR
This Voltage & Frequency Protector is recommended for use in AC parts of photovoltaic systems or other tupes of AC electrical installations. HUF is equipped with switching contact intended for external contactor control. This contact will operate once the HUF gets connected to monitored system after initialization of its internal elecronics. Subsequently, HUF device continuously monitors two basic magnitudes (voltage and frequency) of connected AC power system. In case of their deviation from the preseted values the switch contact will open and consequently the external contactor will disconnect the equipment from the monitored AC power system immediatelly. HUF 003 is suitable for use in three-phase or in single phase applications since reconfiguration of measuring mode is made automatically by inbuilt microprocessor. The basic working limits of overvoltage/undervoltage/frequency and basic response time are set byproducer.

Lightning & Surge Protection for Solar PV Plants

Our Expertise
Drawing on the combined strengths & overall experience of 38 years in the field of lightning protection, surge protection and grounding/earthing system, APS (Allied Power Solutions) has become the one of the first Indian company to be certified as “UL (USA) certified LPS (Lightning Protection System) Installer”. LPS includes external lightning protection, internal lightning & surge protection and earthing/grounding solutions.
APS has been closely associated with various leading international companies to provide the world class solutions towards safety. Our valued principals are “Lightning Protection International Pty Ltd”, Australia well known in the market as “LPI” - pioneer in the field of external lightning protection system & electrical grounding solutions and “HAKEL LTD”, Czech Republic pioneer in Surge Protection Devices.
Furthermore, we have been a technical leader of providing the solution starting from designing of lightning protection for the solar farm to implement the same in any given area across the country. With the well spread dealer network across the country, we are able to offer all the

support and guidance required by our valued customers in no mean of time. Our catalog caters to solar installers, electrical contractors and other professionals working in the renewable energy field and “electrifying” solar industry. We are looking forward to working with you as we all strive to create a sustainable future. One of our goals is to provide a “one-stop solution” for all of your electrical safety product needs, including unsurpassed service.
Useful Application Information
We made the catalog more useful by incorporating our experience in the kinds of situations in which the products might be best applied. While basic, we believe it will help the people whom are new to the business or new to a particular arena.

Distributed by:
DISCLAIMER • LPI & HAKEL maintains a policy of on-going product development, specifications are
subject to change without notice. • Application detail, illustrations and schematic drawings are representative only and
should be used as guides. • It should be noted that 100% protection level for direct strike lightning, lightning
detection and surge and transient protection equipment is not possible and cannot be provided due to the lightning discharge process being a natural atmospheric event.

ALLIED POWER SOLUTIONS
(ISO 9001:2008 & UL listed LPS installer) C - 301, Delhi Rajdhani Apts 80, I.P. Extn. Patparganj, Delhi - 110 092 (INDIA) Tel: + 91 11 2223 6074, 4303 6907 Email: [email protected] Web: www.alliedpowersolutions.com

Preparing to load PDF file. please wait...

0 of 0
100%
Lightning & Surge Protection for Solar PV Plants