Climate Measurement: A review of rainfall and temperature

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Climate Measurement: A review of rainfall and temperature measurement standards in Guyana
Odessa Shako National Ozone Manager Ministry of Agriculture, Guyana Regional CARIMET Workshop April 14-15, 2015 Kingston, Jamaica

Presentation Outline
• How climate is measured? • How climate change is measured? • Why do we measure climate or climate change? • Climate measurement in Guyana • Existing standards for the measurement of
climate • Gaps in the implementation of climate
measurement standards in Guyana • Recommendations for addressing these gaps

What is climate?
• Climate is the average weather usually calculated over a 30-year time period for a particular region and time period (2015 Weather Wiz Kids).
• It is determined by patterns of temperature, precipitation (rain or snow), humidity, wind and seasons (Washington State Department of Ecology)

Measuring Climate
• The climate of a particular region is determined through analysis of Climatological variables in a region over a period of 30-years or greater
• The parameters measured include:
▫ Temperature (maximum, minimum, lower ground and soil)
▫ Wind speed ▫ Relative humidity ▫ Rainfall ▫ Atmospheric pressure ▫ Sunshine hours

How do we measure climate change?
• There are a number of key factors in measuring climate change, and they are broadly categorized below. The range of instrumentation used to observe and measure climate is truly amazing. Temperature When measuring climate change this is a primary and can be measured or reconstructed for the Earth’s surface, and sea surface temperature (SST). Precipitation (rainfall, snowfall etc) offers another indicator of relative climate variation and may include humidity or water balance, and water quality. Biomass and vegetation patterns may be discerned in a variety of ways and provide evidence of how ecosystems change to adapt to climate change.

How do we measure climate change?
Sea Level measurements reflect changes in shoreline and usually relate to the degree of ice coverage in high latitudes and elevations. Solar Activity can influence climate, primarily through changes in the intensity of solar radiation. Volcanic Eruptions, like solar radiation, can alter climate due to the aerosols that are emitted into the atmosphere and alter climate patterns. Chemical composition of air or water can be measured by tracking levels of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide and methane, and measuring ratios of oxygen isotopes. Research indicates a strong correlation between the percent of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and the Earth’s mean temperature.

Climatological parameters for measuring climate change
The primary parameters for measuring climate change are:
▫ Temperature - near ground temperature ▫ Precipitation - liquid
The discussions that follow are focused mainly on these two parameters.

Why Measure Climate and Climate Change?
Meteorological (climate) measurements are required, either jointly or independently and locally or globally for input to numerical weather models for hydrological and agricultural purposes an as indicators for climatic variability
▫ We measure climate [change] to understand climate, climate variability and climatic changes at the local national and regional levels
▫ To better understand how climate [change] impacts our societies
▫ To better plan adaptation measures to combat the real and or potential impacts of climate change

Climate measurement in Guyana
• The Hydrometeorological Service, Ministry of Agriculture is the official provider of weather, water and climate information and related products and services for Guyana. The Department’s general responsibility is to monitor and evaluate the weather and water resources in Guyana

Climate Stations Network - Guyana
There are 2o Automatic Weather stations installed in Guyana
In addition to these there are six (6) additional stations that are already installed and functioning

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Climate Measurement: A review of rainfall and temperature