Alternative Control Techniques Document:


Download Alternative Control Techniques Document:


Preview text

Alternative Control Techniques Document: Stationary Diesel Engines
FINAL REPORT
EPA Contract No. EP-D-07-019 Work Assignment No. 2-07 EC/R Project No. MME-207
Prepared For: Energy Strategies Group U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards Sector Policies and Programs Division Research Triangle Park, NC 27711
Prepared By: Bradley Nelson EC/R Incorporated 501 Eastowne Drive, Suite 250 Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27514
March 5, 2010

This page is intentionally left blank.

Table of Contents
1.0 INTRODUCTION AND PURPOSE ..................................................................................... 1
2.0 DESCRIPTION OF STATIONARY DIESEL ENGINES.................................................. 3
2.1 OPERATING DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS ................................................................................ 3 2.2 OPERATING CYCLES ............................................................................................................ 4
2.2.1 Two-Stroke Cycle ........................................................................................................ 5 2.2.2 Four-Stroke Cycle ....................................................................................................... 7 2.3 CHARGING METHODS .......................................................................................................... 7 2.3.1 Natural Aspiration ...................................................................................................... 7 2.3.2 Blower-Scavenging ..................................................................................................... 9 2.3.3 Turbocharging/Supercharging ................................................................................... 9 2.4 ENGINE SIZES..................................................................................................................... 10 2.5 INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS .................................................................................................. 10 2.5.1 Stationary Diesel Engine Population........................................................................ 11 2.5.2 Stationary Diesel Engine Applications ..................................................................... 13 2.6 REFERENCES FOR CHAPTER 2......................................................................................... 14
3.0 CHARACTERIZATION OF DIESEL EXHAUST EMISSIONS................................... 17
3.1 FORMATION OF DIESEL EXHAUST EMISSIONS .................................................................... 17 3.1.1 Formation of Nitrogen Oxides .................................................................................. 17 3.1.1.1 Formation of Thermal NOX ............................................................................ 18 3.1.1.2 Formation of Fuel NOX................................................................................... 18 3.1.2 Other Products of Incomplete Combustion............................................................... 19 3.1.2.1 Formation of PM............................................................................................. 19 3.1.2.2 Formation of THC........................................................................................... 20 3.1.2.3 Formation of CO ............................................................................................. 21
3.2 CRITERIA POLLUTANT EMISSION FACTORS........................................................................ 22 3.3 REFERENCES FOR CHAPTER 3......................................................................................... 28
4.0 DIESEL ENGINE CONTROL TECHNIQUES ................................................................ 31
4.1 DIESEL PARTICULATE FILTER/CATALYZED DIESEL PARTICULATE FILTER ........................ 32 4.1.1 Process Description .................................................................................................. 32 4.1.2 Potential Pollutant Reductions ................................................................................. 34 4.1.3 Potential Problems/Issues with DPF/CDPF ............................................................ 34
4.2 SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION .................................................................................. 35 4.2.1 Process Description .................................................................................................. 36 4.2.2 Potential Pollutant Reductions ................................................................................. 38 4.2.3 Potential Problems/Issues with SCR......................................................................... 38
4.3 DIESEL OXIDATION CATALYST .......................................................................................... 40 4.3.1 DOC Process Description......................................................................................... 40 4.3.2 Potential Pollutant Reductions ................................................................................. 41 4.3.3 Potential Issues/Problems with DOCs...................................................................... 41
4.4 FLOW-THROUGH FILTER.................................................................................................... 41 4.4.1 FTF Process Description .......................................................................................... 42
i

4.4.2 Potential Pollutant Reductions for FTF ................................................................... 43 4.4.3 Potential Issues/Problems with FTF......................................................................... 43 4.5 EXHAUST GAS RECIRCULATION......................................................................................... 43 4.5.1 EGR Process Description ......................................................................................... 44 4.5.2 Potential Pollutant Reductions ................................................................................. 44 4.5.3 Potential Issues/Problems with EGR ........................................................................ 44 4.6 OPEN AND CLOSED CRANKCASE VENTILATION SYSTEM ................................................... 45 4.6.1 Open and Closed Crankcase Ventilation System Process Description .................... 46 4.6.2 Potential Pollutant Reductions ................................................................................. 46 4.6.3 Potential Issues/Problems with OCV/CCV ............................................................... 46 4.7 ULTRA LOW SULFUR DIESEL (ULSD) FUEL ...................................................................... 47 4.7.1 Potential Pollutant Reductions ................................................................................. 47 4.7.2 Potential Issues/Problems with ULSD...................................................................... 47 4.8 EMERGING CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES................................................................................ 48 4.8.1 Lean NOX Catalysts .................................................................................................. 48 4.8.2 NOX Adsorbers .......................................................................................................... 48 4.9 SELECTION OF STATIONARY DIESEL CONTROL TECHNIQUES............................................. 50 4.10 REFERENCES FOR CHAPTER 4......................................................................................... 52
5.0 CONTROL COSTS ............................................................................................................. 55
5.1 COST EVALUATION METHODOLOGY .................................................................................. 55 5.2 CONTROL COSTS FOR DIESEL ENGINES.............................................................................. 56
5.2.1 Control Costs for SCR .............................................................................................. 56 5.2.1.1 Capital Costs ........................................................................................................ 56 5.2.1.2 Annual Costs ................................................................................................... 57 5.2.1.3 SCR Cost per Ton of NOX Removed................................................................... 57
5.2.2 Control Costs for CDPF ........................................................................................... 59 5.2.2.1 Capital Costs ................................................................................................... 59 5.2.2.2 Annual Costs ................................................................................................... 59 5.2.2.3 CDPF Cost per Ton of PM and THC Removed ............................................. 59
5.2.3 Control Costs for DOC ............................................................................................. 60 5.2.3.1 Capital Costs ................................................................................................... 60 5.2.3.2 Annual Costs ................................................................................................... 64 5.2.3.3 DOC Cost per Ton of PM, CO, and THC Removed ...................................... 64
5.2.4 Control Costs for FTF .............................................................................................. 64 5.2.4.1 Capital Costs ................................................................................................... 64 5.2.4.2 Annual Costs ................................................................................................... 68 5.2.4.3 FTF Cost per Ton of PM Removed ................................................................ 68
5.2.5 EGR Cost .................................................................................................................. 70 5.2.6 Control costs for OCV/CCV...................................................................................... 70
5.2.6.1 Capital Costs ................................................................................................... 70 5.2.6.2 Annual Costs ................................................................................................... 71 5.2.7 ULSD Cost ................................................................................................................ 71 5.2.8 LNC Cost................................................................................................................... 71 5.2.9 NOX Adsorber Cost ................................................................................................... 72 5.3 REFERENCES FOR CHAPTER 5............................................................................................. 73
ii

6.0 ENVIRONMENTAL AND ENERGY IMPACTS............................................................. 75 6.1 AIR POLLUTION ................................................................................................................. 75 6.1.1 Emissions Trade-offs................................................................................................. 76 6.1.2 Ammonia Emissions from SCR ................................................................................. 76 6.2 SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL.................................................................................................... 77 6.3 ENERGY CONSUMPTION ..................................................................................................... 77 6.4 REFERENCES FOR CHAPTER 6............................................................................................. 79
iii

List of Figures
Figure 2-1. Schematic of Diesel Engine Two-Stroke Cycle ……………………………………. 5 Figure 2-2. Schematic of Diesel Engine Four-Stroke Cycle ……………………………………. 7 Figure 4-1. Diesel Particulate Filter ……………………………………………………..…….. 29 Figure 4-2. SCR Honeycomb Configuration ……………………………………………..…….33 Figure 4-3. Schematic of a Diesel Oxidation Catalyst ………………………………………....36 Figure 4-4. Flow-through Filter System ….……….…………………………………….…..… 38 Figure 4-5. Example of an EGR/DPF System ………………………………………………… 40
List of Tables
Table 2-1. Total Estimated 2008 Population of Stationary Diesel Engines …………….……. 11 Table 2-2. Breakdown of Stationary Diesel Engines by Model Year ………………………... 12 Table 3-1. Criteria Pollutant Emission Factors (g/HP-hr) ….….…………….………………. 22 Table 3-2. Criteria Pollutant Emission Factors (lb/HP-hr) …….…………….………………. 24 Table 5-1. Summary of the Average Hours of Operation for Prime Stationary Diesel Engines from Available Data Sources ………………………………………………………………… 50 Table 5-2. SCR Cost per ton Summary for NOX …………………………………….………. 52 Table 5-3. CDPF Cost per ton Summary for PM ……………………………………………. 55 Table 5-4. CDPF Cost per ton Summary for THC …………………………………..………. 56 Table 5-5. DOC Cost per ton Summary for PM …………………………………….……….. 59 Table 5-6. DOC Cost per ton Summary for CO ……………………………………….…….. 60 Table 5-7. DOC Cost per ton Summary for THC ………………………………….………… 61 Table 5-8. FTF Cost per ton Summary for PM …………………………………….………… 63 Table 6-1. Summary of Pollutant Reduction of Stationary Diesel Emission Control Techniques ………………………………………………………………………………………………… 69
iv

List of Acronyms
Alternative Control Techniques Ammonium Bisulfate Anhydrous Ammonia Barium Carbonate Barium Hydroxide Barium Nitrate Best Demonstrated Available Technology California Air Resource Board Carbon Dioxide Carbon Monoxide Catalyzed Diesel Particulate Filter Closed Crankcase Ventilation Compression Ignition Continuous Emission Monitoring Systems Diesel Oxidation Catalyst Diesel Particulate Filter Dinitrogen Pentoxide Dinitrogen Tetroxide Diesel Oxidation Catalyst Engine Manufacturers Association Environmental Protection Agency Exhaust Gas Recirculation Flow-through Filter Fuel-bound Nitrogen Lean NOX Catalyst Lean NOX Traps Manufacturers of Emissions Control Association National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants New Source Performance Standards Nitrate Nitrogen Nitrogen Dioxide Nitrogen Oxide Nitrogen Oxides Nitrogen Trioxide Nitrous Oxide Northeast States for Coordinated Air Use Management Office of Transportation and Air Quality Oxygen Open Crankcase Ventilation
v

ACT NH4HSO4 NH3 BaCO3 Ba(OH)2 Ba(NO3)2 BDAT CARB CO2 CO CDPF CCV CI CEMS DOC DPF N2O5 N2O4 DOC EMA EPA EGR FTF FBN LNC LNT MECA NESHAP NSPS NO3 N2 NO2 NO NOX N2O3 N2O NESCAUM OTAQ O2 OCV

Palladium Particulate Matter Platinum Power Systems Research Purchased Equipment Cost Pyridine Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines Selective Catalytic Reduction Soluble Organic Fraction Spark Ignition Sulfur Dioxide Sulfur Oxides Total Hydrocarbons Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel Urea Water
List of Units
Horsepower Parts Per Million Revolutions Per Minute Pounds Hour Kilowatt Inches Tons Per Year

Pd PM Pt PSR PEC C5H5N RICE SCR SOF SI SO2 SOX THC ULSD (NH2)2CO H2O
HP ppm rpm lb hr kW in TPY

vi

1.0 INTRODUCTION AND PURPOSE
This alternative control techniques (ACT) document addresses criteria pollutant control technologies and strategies for stationary diesel reciprocating internal combustion engines (RICE). The criteria pollutants that are addressed include: nitrogen oxides (NOX), particulate matter (PM), carbon monoxide (CO), and total hydrocarbons (THC). The control technologies that are investigated include selective catalytic reduction (SCR), diesel particulate filter (DPF), catalyzed diesel particulate filter (CDPF), flow-through filtration (FTF), exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), closed crankcase ventilation (CCV), open crankcase ventilation (OCV), diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), and ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel (ULSD), in addition to some emerging technologies. Previous EPA ACT documents for RICE have focused on only NOX controls and include: Alternative Control Techniques Document - NOX Emissions from Stationary Internal Combustion Engines (EPA-453/R-93-032) dated July 1993, and Stationary Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines - Updated Information on NOX Emissions and Control Techniques dated September 2000. This document is the first ACT for RICE that addresses pollutants other than NOX.
This ACT document provides technical information for use by State and local agencies to develop and implement regulatory programs to control emissions of NOX, PM, CO, and THC from stationary diesel engines, particularly in ozone and PM nonattainment areas.
Stationary diesel engines are used in a wide range of applications. Diesel engines are known to be durable and long-lasting and can provide work or electricity for just about any industrial or commercial application. They are used in both continuous and emergency applications. It must be recognized that the alternative control techniques and the corresponding achievable criteria pollutant emission levels presented in this document may not be applicable for every stationary diesel engine application. The size and design of the engine, the operating duty cycle, site conditions, and other site-specific factors must be taken into consideration, and the suitability of a control technique must be determined on a case-by-case basis.
1

The information in this ACT document was generated through a literature search and from information provided by engine manufacturers, control equipment vendors, engine users, and regulatory agencies. Chapter 2.0 presents information on engine operation and industry applications. Chapter 3.0 contains a discussion of NOX, PM, CO, and THC formation and the uncontrolled emission factors for these pollutants. Control techniques and achievable emission reductions are included in Chapter 4.0. The cost and cost per ton of the control techniques are presented in Chapter 5.0. Chapter 6.0 describes environmental and energy impacts associated with implementing the control techniques.
2

Preparing to load PDF file. please wait...

0 of 0
100%
Alternative Control Techniques Document: