Crane Safety Assessment Findings, Results, and Recommendations


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Crane Safety Assessment Findings, Results, and Recommendations Final Report
Submitted to The Bureau of Safety and Environmental
Enforcement (BSEE) Submitted by
ABSG CONSULTING, INC. 1525 Wilson Blvd., Suite 625
Arlington, VA 22209 (703) 351-3700
Deliverable E: Final Report (Final) BPA Contract # E13PA00008 Task Order # E14PB00023 April 24, 2015

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Executive Summary
The Bureau of Safety and Environmental Enforcement (BSEE) works to promote safety, protect the environment, and conserve natural resources on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) through vigorous regulatory oversight and enforcement. BSEE is responsible for enforcing the regulations found at 30 CFR 250.108 for cranes and material handling equipment installed on fixed platforms on the OCS. In addition to the 30 CFR 250 crane regulations, BSEE requires lessees and operators to comply with various industry standards incorporated by reference into regulation. Conversely, the United States Coast Guard (USCG) is responsible for safety of life on floating facilities operating on the OCS. The USCG crane and material handling certification and inspection strategy is promulgated in 46 C.F.R. §107.258 and 259. Crane inspections may be conducted by a USCG marine inspector or by one of two authorized thirdparty inspectors.
On April 25, 2014, BSEE initiated the Crane Safety Assessment. The study involved analysis of cranes and material handling equipment operating on the OCS, analysis of BSEE lifting Potential Incidents of Noncompliance (PINCs) and incidents, review of industry standards and practices, and recommendations for changes to lifting regulation. The goal of this study was to develop an inspection methodology that may be used by BSEE and USCG personnel in performing an assessment in regards to the safety of cranes and material handling equipment.
The team began by researching the population and attributes of cranes and material handling equipment operating on the OCS. Crane operators and service providers were consulted to provide information on the age, type, and population of cranes operating on the OCS. BSEE and USCG provided Government Furnished Information (GFI) such as lifting PINCS, records of OCS lifting incidents, and records of crane populations on the OCS to inform the study. Following the collection of information, the study team performed a statistical analysis on the population of cranes and material handling equipment operating on the OCS. The incident data supplied by BSEE through GFI was analyzed to identify failure event data, trends and key issues that could be addressed in the development of an improved offshore crane and material handling equipment inspection program. The study team reviewed the lifting PINCs and provided recommendations for improvement and consideration. Lifting standards, inspection methodologies and strategies were analyzed to identify best practices and provide ̤ζΨ̍̍̕ζ̎βΚ̲ϵ̨̎̕ π̤̕ ϶EEϳ̨ Ψ̨̎̕ϵβζ̤Κ̲ϵ̎̕ ϵ̎ ̲ϲζ ϵ̎Ψ̡̤̤̕̕Κ̲ϵ̎̕ ̕π ̲ϲζ̨ζ practices into an inspection strategy. BSEE stakeholders were consulted and engaged throughout the analysis phase of the study and provided interim feedback on the analysis results. The study team evaluated the findings of the incident analysis and applied their understanding of lifting standards and methodologies to develop interim recommendations. The USCG BSEE Memorandum of Understanding/Memorandum of Agreement (MOU MOA) was reviewed to inform the study of the responsibility each agency shared in the oversight of lifting equipment on the OCS. BSEE stakeholders were consulted to provide feedback on the interim recommendations drafted by the study team.
Based on the information gathered and analysis conducted it is recommended that the future inspection strategy move away from a ̡̤ζ̨Ψ̤ϵ̡̲ϵ͘ζ ̍ζ̲ϲ̕β̇̕̕Ϩ͟ϭ ϶EEϳ̨ philosophy of strict regulatory compliance, and toward ensuring that operators create and comply with a robust Safety and Environmental Management System (SEMS) tailored for their facility.

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The following recommendations are outlined in the report to produce a robust crane and material handling inspection program for offshore facilities which harmonizes with 30 C.F.R §250.108 and 30 C.F.R. §250.1913, et seq. and with the intentions of 46 C.F.R. §107.258 and 259:
 Create database of offshore facilities having cranes subject to API Spec 2D, API RP 2D, and material handling equipment with capacities greater than 5 short tons subject to ASME B30.2.
 Amend regulation 30 C.F.R. §250.108 for pedestal, overhead bridge, and gantry cranes.  Amend regulation 30 C.F.R. §250.108 for material handling.  Amend regulation 30 C.F.R. §250.198 to incorporate applicable ASME B30 series standards.  Amend PINCs to harmonize with the requirements of 30 C.F.R. §250.1900.  Train BSEE inspectors to become qualified crane and rigging inspectors as promulgated by API
RP 2D and ASME B30 series standards, or audit crane inspection records performed by thirdparty qualified inspectors similar to the strategy adopted by the USCG in 46 C.F.R. §107.259.  Require drilling systems used on mobile offshore drilling units (MODUs) to be certified drilling systems (CDS) and inspected by the marine classification society that issued the CDS certificate.  Develop a formal training qualification program for BSEE inspectors in mechanical and electrohydraulic equipment fundamentals, hazard identification for machine safety.  Inspect or audit third-party inspections to ensure that the cranes and material handling equipment are designed, maintained, and operated in accordance with the standards promulgated by marine classification societies, API, or ASME as regulations promulgated by 30 C.F.R. 250.108 and 30 C.F.R. 250.1913 (d);
The following recommendations for changes to 30 CFR 250.108 (a-e) are shown in red and proposed to improve worker safety while operating cranes installed on fixed OCS facilities.
§250.108 What requirements must I follow for cranes and other material-handling equipment? (a) All pedestal cranes installed on fixed platforms must be operated in accordance with American Petroleum Institute's Recommended Practice for Operation and Maintenance of Offshore Cranes, API RP 2D (as incorporated by reference in § 250.198). (b) All cranes installed on fixed platforms must be equipped with a functional anti-two block device. (c) If a fixed platform is installed after March 17, 2003, all pedestal cranes on the platform must meet the requirements of American Petroleum Institute Specification for Offshore Pedestal Mounted Cranes, API Spec 2C (as incorporated by reference in §250.198). (d) All pedestal cranes manufactured after March 17, 2003, and installed on a fixed platform, must meet the requirements of API Spec 2C. (e) All overhead bridge cranes manufactured after 1 January 2016 and installed on a fixed platform must meet the requirements of CMMA Specification No. 70 ̌ Specifications for Electric Overhead Travelling Cranes (as incorporated by reference in §250.198). (f) All overhead bridge cranes installed on fixed platforms must be operated in accordance with the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) B30.2, Safety Standard for Overhead Bridge and Gantry Cranes (Top Running Bridge, Single or Multiple Girder, Top Running Trolley Hoist) or ASME B30.17 Safety Standard for Overhead Bridge and Gantry Cranes (Top Running Bridge, Single Girder, Underhung Hoist), as applicable to the type of crane, (as incorporated by reference in §250.198). Required frequent and periodic inspections (other than daily or operational

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inspections) of overhead bridge cranes shall be performed by a qualified crane inspector designated by the crane manufacturer or certified in accordance with the requirements of the National Commission for the Certification of Crane Operators (NCCCO).
(g) All operators of overhead bridge cranes greater than 5 tons must be certified in accordance with the requirements of the National Commission for the Certification of Crane Operators (NCCCO). Rigging of loads greater than 5 tons shall be conducted by personnel certified in accordance with API RP 2D or certified in accordance with the NCCCO requirements for Rigger I for loads up to 15 tons and Rigger II for loads over 15 tons.
(h) All crane owners or operators on fixed platforms must have a crane operations safety policy that differentiates between routine, critical and engineered lifts. Routine lifts are those not designated as critical or engineered lifts. Critical lifts are those where the failure or loss of load control could result in loss of life, major structural damage to facilities or equipment, or large environmental release. Some factors, but not all factors, that may be used to determine a critical lift are:
 When a load is lifted over or near operating equipment or safety areas designated by a dropped object study;
 When two or more pieces of lifting equipment are required to work in unison, including trolleys installed on the same bridge;
 When special lifting equipment such as non-standard crane configurations or purpose built, one-off lifting appurtenances will be used;
 The weight of the load exceeds set limits such as 20 tons;
 ϼϲζ ͙ζϵϨϲ̲ ̕π ̲ϲζ ̇̕Κβ ζ͞Ψζζβ̨ ϳϱ ̡ζ̤Ψζ̲̎ ̕π ̲ϲζ Ψ̤Κ̎ζϳ̨ ̤Κ̲ζβ ΨΚ̡ΚΨϵ̲͟Ϯ ̤̕
 When making personnel transfers.
Engineered lifts are those that exceed the rated capacity of the crane at the required lifting angle (not to include load testing requirements in API Spec 2C). Engineered lifts are so exceptional that there shall be increased inspection requirements to be met prior to operation. For engineered lifts, the crane shall be inspected by the crane manufacturer or a qualified third-party inspector in accordance with API Spec 2D annual inspection requirements not more than two days prior to the lift. Any deterioration or defects found by that shall be considered in design calculations to support the lift. The crane shall also be inspected by the crane manufacturer or a qualified third-party in accordance with annual inspection requirements, including and non-destructive testing required by the manufacturer, after the engineered lift is completed and prior to release for use in normal operations. A record of the engineered lift, including supporting calculations, inspections, weights, and all distances moved, shall maintained in accordance with (i) (2) below.
(i) You must maintain records specific to a crane or the operation of a crane installed on an OCS fixed platform, as follows:
(1) Retain all design and construction records, including installation records for any anti-two block safety devices, for the life of the crane. The records must be kept at the OCS fixed platform.
(2) Retain all inspection, testing, and maintenance records of cranes for at least 4 years. The records must be kept at the OCS fixed platform.
(3) Retain the qualification records of the crane operator and all rigger personnel for at least 4 years. The records must be kept at the OCS fixed platform.

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The following recommendations for changes to 30 CFR 250.108 (f) are shown in red and proposed to
improve worker safety while operating material handling equipment installed on fixed OCS facilities.
§250.108 What requirements must I follow for cranes and other material-handling equipment?
(j) You must operate and maintain all other material-handling equipment in a manner that ensures safe operations and prevents pollution.
(1) All winches, including, but not limited to, wireline winches, pneumatic and hydraulic line tuggers, electric, pneumatic and hydraulic planetary gear hoists and winches, electromechanical and umbilical winches, man-riding winches, or any other power-driven drum devices shall be designed, operated and maintained in accordance with ASME B30.7, Winches (as incorporated by reference in §250.198).
(2) All slings shall be operated and maintained in accordance with ASME B30.9, Slings, which is incorporated by reference in API RP 2D Section 5.2.1 (as incorporated by reference in §250.198).
(3) All hooks shall be operated and maintained in accordance with ASME B30.10, Hooks (as incorporated by reference in §250.198).
(4) All monorails and underhung cranes shall be operated and maintained in accordance with ASME B30.11, Monorails and Underhung Cranes (as incorporated by reference in §250.198).
(5) All overhead hoists shall be operated and maintained in accordance with ASME B30.16, Overhead Hoists (as incorporated by reference in §250.198).
(6) All below-the-hook lifting devices, including, but not limited to, structural, mechanical, vacuum, close-proximity lifting magnets, plate clamps, or any other device or appurtenance used for attaching a load to a hoist, shall be operated and maintained in accordance with ASME B30.20, Below-the-Hook Lifting Devices (as incorporated by reference in §250.198). Moreover, all below̌the-hook lifting devices, including, but not limited to, spreader bars and frames, pad eyes, attachment points, and all other lifting appurtenances shall be designed in accordance with ASME BHT-1, Below-the-Hook Lifting Devices (as incorporated by reference in §250.198).
(7) All ratchet and pawl and friction brake type lever chain, rope, and web strap hoists (comea-long) used for lifting, pulling, and tensioning applications shall be operated and maintained in accordance with ASME B30.21, Lever Hoists (as incorporated by reference in §250.198).
(8) All detachable rigging hardware used for load-handling activities, including but not limited to, shackles, links, rings, swivels, turnbuckles, eyebolts, hoist rings, wire rope clips, wedge sockets, rigging blocks, and load-indicating devices, shall be operated and maintained in accordance with ASME B30.26, Rigging Hardware (as incorporated by reference in §250.198).
(9) All loads suspended from rotorcraft-helicopters shall be conducted in accordance with Federal Air Regulation 14 C.F.R. Part 133 and ASME B30.12, Handling Loads Suspended from Rotorcraft (as incorporated by reference in §250.198). Personnel rigging external loads must have specialized training in helicopter external load operations.
(10) Rigging of loads greater than 5 tons shall be conducted by personnel certified in accordance with API RP 2D or certified in accordance with the NCCCO requirements for Rigger I for loads up to 15 tons and Rigger II for loads over 15 tons.
(11) All specialty material handling equipment, including, but not limited to, bails, BOP/LMRP service cranes and transporters, crown and traveling blocks, deadline anchors, drilling derricks or masts, draw works, drill floor manipulator arms, drilling elevators, riser handling systems and carts, iron roughnecks, kelly drives, top drives, riser spiders, rotary tables, and drill

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̨͙ϵ͘ζ̨̇ϭ ̨ϲΚ̇̇ Χζ ̡̕ζ̤Κ̲ζβ Κ̎β ̍Κϵ̲̎Κϵ̎ζβ ϵ̎ ΚΨΨ̤̕βΚ̎Ψζ ͙ϵ̲ϲ ̲ϲζ ̍Κ͍̎πΚΨ̲͍̤ζ̤ϳ̨ recommendation and instructions. Such recommendations and instructions shall be supported by a Failure Modes, Effects and Criticality Analysis (FMECA) in accordance with generally accepted engineering practices to verify the required inspection and maintenance schedules for the service intended.
Design and installation of specialty material handling equipment should consider ASTM F1166, Human Engineering Design for Marine Systems, Equipment and Facilities. All specialty material handling equipment shall also be subjected to a task analysis and job safety analysis by a qualified human factors or safety professional to ensure safe operation. Moreover, all specialty material handling equipment shall be installed, operated, and maintained to ensure that inadvertent leaks or spills of operating fluids do not result in an environmental release.
(k) All owners or operators on fixed platforms shall have a safety policy and procedures that cover all material handling equipment.
(l) All required maintenance on material handling equipment shall be performed by a qualified maintenance or service personnel. All required inspections shall be performed by a qualified inspector or third-party inspection service. A qualified person is one who, by possession of a recognized degree, certificate, or professional standing, or who by extensive knowledge, training and experience, has successfully demonstrated their ability to inspect, diagnose and troubleshoot faults, and service or repair the specific equipment.
(m) You must maintain records specific to the material handling equipment installed on an OCS fixed platform, as follows:
(1) Retain all design and construction records, including installation records for any specialty material handling equipment for the life of the equipment. The records must be kept at the OCS fixed platform.
(2) Retain any required operator or daily inspection records for a period of not less than 90 days. The records must be kept at the OCS fixed platforms.
(3) Retain all frequent and periodic inspection and testing records for all material handling equipment for at least 4 years. The records must be kept at the OCS fixed platform.
(4) Retain the qualification records of all material handling maintenance, inspection, and all rigger personnel for at least 4 years. The records must be kept at the OCS fixed platform.

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Table of Contents
Executive Summary........................................................................................................................................ i 1 Introduction .................................................................................................................................... 11 2 Methodology................................................................................................................................... 11 3 Crane Assessment ........................................................................................................................... 13
3.1 Assumptions and Limitations ...................................................................................................... 13 3.2 Crane Analysis ............................................................................................................................. 14 3.3 Observations ............................................................................................................................... 22 4 Material Handling Equipment Assessment..................................................................................... 22 4.1 Analysis ....................................................................................................................................... 24
4.1.1 Certified Drilling System (CDS) Equipment ......................................................................... 24 4.1.2 Hoisting, Lifting, Rotating and Handling Systems ............................................................... 25 4.1.3 Auxiliary Hoisting and Material Handling Equipment......................................................... 27 4.1.4 BSEE I-190 PINC for Material Handling Equipment............................................................. 28 5 Analysis of Lifting PINCs, INCs, and OIRs......................................................................................... 30 5.1 PINC Analysis............................................................................................................................... 32 5.1.1 Discussion and Analysis....................................................................................................... 57 5.1.2 Conclusion and Recommendations..................................................................................... 60 5.1.3 Updated PINCs .................................................................................................................... 61 5.2 Analysis of INCs and OIRs............................................................................................................ 61 5.2.1 Results ................................................................................................................................. 62 5.2.2 Conclusion and Recommendations..................................................................................... 73 6 Analysis of Industry Standards ........................................................................................................ 74 6.1 Domestic and International Inspection Methodologies ............................................................. 74 6.1.1 Comparison of Existing Inspection Methodologies ............................................................ 74 6.1.2 Inspection Authority Delegated to Third Parties ................................................................ 81 6.2 API Specification 2C .................................................................................................................... 84 6.2.1 Analysis ............................................................................................................................... 85 6.2.2 Inspection............................................................................................................................ 86 6.2.3 Other Standards .................................................................................................................. 87 6.3 API Recommended Practice 2D .................................................................................................. 90 6.3.1 Analysis ............................................................................................................................... 90 6.3.2 Inspection............................................................................................................................ 92 6.3.3 Conclusion and Recommendations..................................................................................... 93 6.4 ISO Crane Inspection Standards and Regulatory Guidelines ...................................................... 95 6.4.1 Analysis ............................................................................................................................... 95 6.4.2 Conclusion and Recommendations................................................................................... 100 6.5 ASME B30 Standards................................................................................................................. 100 6.5.1 B30.2: Overhead and Gantry Cranes................................................................................. 101 6.5.2 B30.4: Portal and Pedestal Cranes .................................................................................... 106 6.5.3 B30.7: Winches ................................................................................................................. 110

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6.5.4 B30.8: Floating Cranes and Floating Derricks ................................................................... 112 6.5.5 B30.9: Slings ...................................................................................................................... 114 6.5.6 B30.10: Hooks ................................................................................................................... 120 6.5.7 B30.16: Overhead Hoists................................................................................................... 122 6.5.8 B30.20: Below-the-Hook Lifting Devices........................................................................... 126 6.5.9 B30.21: Lever Hoists.......................................................................................................... 131 6.5.10 B30.24: Container Cranes ................................................................................................. 133 6.5.11 Additional B30 Standards for Consideration .................................................................... 135 7 USCG MOU/MOA Review ............................................................................................................. 140 7.2 USCG MODU Requirements ...................................................................................................... 141 8 Recommendations ........................................................................................................................ 142 8.1 Cranes Regulatory Changes ...................................................................................................... 142 8.2 Material Handling Equipment Improvement............................................................................ 144 8.3 Lifting Inspection Strategy ........................................................................................................ 147 8.3.1 Staff Augmentation ........................................................................................................... 148 8.3.2 Develop a Communication Strategy ................................................................................. 148 8.3.3 Metric Reporting and Data Collection .............................................................................. 149 8.4 Program Related Recommendations ........................................................................................ 150 8.4.1 Harmonize Various PINC Initiatives .................................................................................. 150 8.4.2 Staff Retention .................................................................................................................. 150 8.4.3 Standards Development Organization Outreach.............................................................. 150 Appendix A. Revised PINCs ...........................................................................................................................A

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List of Tables
Table 1: OCS Cranes by Mount Type and Capacity ..................................................................................... 15 Table 2: Descriptive Statistics of the Frequency Distribution ..................................................................... 16 Table 3: Descriptive Statistics of the Trimmed Frequency Distribution ..................................................... 16 Table 4: OCS Cranes by Boom Type ............................................................................................................ 17 Table 5: OCS Cranes by Manufacturer/Service Provider ............................................................................ 18 Table 6: Average Crane Age by Mount and Boom Type ............................................................................. 19 Table 7: Descriptive Statistics of the Age Frequency Distribution.............................................................. 20 Table 8: OCS Cranes Average Off-Board Lift Capacities by Mount and Boom Type ................................... 20 Table 9: Descriptive Statistics of the Age Frequency Distribution.............................................................. 21 Table 10: Scope of Material Handling Equipment Analysis ........................................................................ 23 Table 11: Recommendations for Changes to PINCs.................................................................................... 32 Table 12: Lifting Incident Type.................................................................................................................... 63 Table 13: Failure Cause ............................................................................................................................... 64 Table 14: Lifting Device that Failed............................................................................................................. 65 Table 15: Type of Lifting Failure.................................................................................................................. 66 Table 16: Type of Lift................................................................................................................................... 67 Table 17: Type of Facility ............................................................................................................................ 68 Table 18: Activity at Time of Incident ......................................................................................................... 69 Table 19: Location of Incident..................................................................................................................... 70 Table 20: Injury to Whom ........................................................................................................................... 71 Table 21: Contributing Factor to Failure ..................................................................................................... 72 Table 22: B30 Standards and Topics ........................................................................................................... 87 Table 23: ISO Standards Related to Crane Inspections............................................................................... 96 Table 24: ASME Crane and Material Handling Standards......................................................................... 101 Table 25: Recommended Crane Regulatory Changes............................................................................... 142 Table 26: Recommended Material Handling Equipment Regulatory Changes......................................... 145

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Crane Safety Assessment Findings, Results, and Recommendations