Identifying Key Success Factors for the Implementation of


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IDENTIFYING KEY SUCCESS FACTORS FOR THE IMPLEMENTATION OF ENTERPRISE CONTENT MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Stephanie Burnett Horne, M.S.
Dissertation Prepared for the Degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY
UNIVERSITY OF NORTH TEXAS August 2014
APPROVED: Suliman Hawamdeh, Committee Chair and
Chair of the Department of Library and Information Sciences Mary C. Jones, Committee Member Oksana Zavalina, Committee Member Herman Totten, Dean of the College of Information Mark Wardell, Dean of the Toulouse Graduate School

Horne, Stephanie Burnett. Identifying Key Success Factors for the Implementation of Enterprise Content Management Systems. Doctor of Philosophy (Information Science), August 2014, 144 pp., 17 tables, 11 figures, references, 85 titles.
Enterprise content management (ECM) is an emerging research area that is beginning to find attention in academia. While the private sector has a growing industry and community for ECM, academia is starting to address this with direct links to the better-established areas of information systems and enterprise resource planning systems. ECM has been viewed as a higher-level concept of methods and strategies pertaining to content management in the context of the enterprise. Like many other organizational wide systems, ECM systems are complex, difficult to implement and risk failing to meet expected success measures. Definitions for what exactly constitutes an ECM system are still evolving. The major issues with ECM systems are that they are increasingly being implemented by organizations in an attempt to address the unmanageable amount of unstructured content over its lifecycle, compliance pressures, collaboration needs, content integrity and continuity, and controlling costs. However, the implementation problems are many and diverse, such as determining content and business processes to be included, determining technologies to fit the organizational needs, how to integrate with existing systems, and managing organizational culture and change for acceptance. There is currently little academic research in the area of ECM, and research determining the key factors that contribute to successful implementations of these systems is absent.
This research addressed the existing gap in ECM research and investigated the key success factors for the implementations of ECM systems with the objectives of identifying a set

of success factors. Guided by research in related areas and through developing a theoretical framework and the resulting research model, the study used a qualitative case study method to identify ECM implementation factors and their relationship to organizational culture and people, business processes, technology and organizational content. The results of this research were twofold, first by contributing needed research in the ECM area and second to aid organizations in the implementation of ECM systems by identifying key factors.

Copyright 2014 by
Stephanie Burnett Horne
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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This dissertation culminates twelve years of education for three degrees and closes a chapter in my life. There were many figures of support throughout this journey and I would like to thank some of them here. Thanks are due to my committee, Dr. Suliman Hawamdeh, Dr. Mary C. Jones, and Dr. Oksana Zavalina who ensured that this research would become a valuable contribution to the field of ECM. Thank you to Dr. William Moen for starting me on this path as my mentor and friend. There are many friends and family who were close to me and patiently supported me through trials and success and I owe thanks to them all. In particular, I would like to thank my parents and brother, who have always been proud of me with or without a degree. Finally, my deepest gratitude is for my husband and dearest friend for his belief in my potential to succeed.
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TABLE OF CONTENTS Page
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS……………………………………………………………………………………………….……………iii LIST OF TABLES...............................................................................................................................vii LIST OF FIGURES............................................................................................................................viii LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS .................................................................................................................ix CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................ 1
1.1 Background ........................................................................................................................... 2 1.2 Statement of the Problem .................................................................................................... 4 1.3 Research Questions .............................................................................................................. 6 1.4 Purpose and Importance of the Study.................................................................................. 7 1.5 Summary ............................................................................................................................... 7 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW .................................................................................................... 9 2.1 Enterprise Content Management Systems........................................................................... 9
2.1.1 Case Studies ................................................................................................................. 14 2.1.2 Theoretical Development ............................................................................................ 20 2.1.3 Two ECM Academic Literature Reviews ...................................................................... 24 2.1.4 Summary of Enterprise Content Management Systems ............................................. 26 2.2 IS and ES Critical Success Factors Research ........................................................................ 27 2.3 Theoretical Framework ....................................................................................................... 33 CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY ......................................................................................................... 37 3.1 Research Model .................................................................................................................. 39
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3.2 ECM Areas and Factors ....................................................................................................... 40 3.2.1 Managerial Factors ...................................................................................................... 40 3.2.2 User Factors ................................................................................................................. 42 3.2.3 Task-Related Factors .................................................................................................... 43 3.2.4 Technological Factors .................................................................................................. 45 3.2.5 Content Factors............................................................................................................ 48
3.3 Case Study and Research Methods..................................................................................... 49 3.3.1 Sample Frame and Data Sources ................................................................................. 50 3.3.2 Instrumentation ........................................................................................................... 52 3.3.3 Data Collection............................................................................................................. 54 3.3.4 Ethical Considerations.................................................................................................. 55
3.4 Data Analysis Methods ....................................................................................................... 55 3.5 Summary ............................................................................................................................. 58 CHAPTER 4 RESULTS AND FINDINGS............................................................................................. 59 4.1 Data Analysis of Interviews................................................................................................. 59
4.1.1 Managerial Factors ...................................................................................................... 60 4.1.2 User Factors ................................................................................................................. 70 4.1.3 Task-Related Factors .................................................................................................... 77 4.1.4 Technological Factors .................................................................................................. 87 4.1.5 Content Factors............................................................................................................ 90 4.2 Document Content Findings ............................................................................................... 95 4.3 Results Summary................................................................................................................. 98
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4.4 Summary ........................................................................................................................... 104 CHAPTER 5 DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION............................................................................... 105
5.1 Discussion.......................................................................................................................... 105 5.2 Significance and Recommendations ................................................................................. 118 5.3 Limitations......................................................................................................................... 122 5.4 Conclusion......................................................................................................................... 122 APPENDIX A FACTORS SUPPORT TABLE...................................................................................... 124 APPENDIX B CONSENT FORM ..................................................................................................... 129 APPENDIX C DATA COLLECTION INSTRUMENT: INTERVIEW SCHEDULE .................................... 132 REFERENCES ................................................................................................................................ 135
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LIST OF TABLES Page
Table 1 Eleven Identified Roles and Responsibilities of ECM (Smith & McKeen, 2003) .............. 14 Table 2 Managerial Factors........................................................................................................... 42 Table 3 User Factors...................................................................................................................... 43 Table 4 Task-Related Factors ........................................................................................................ 45 Table 5 Technological Factors....................................................................................................... 47 Table 6 Content Factors ................................................................................................................ 49 Table 7 Document Collection........................................................................................................ 51 Table 8 Managerial Factors: Frequencies of Sources and Occurrences ....................................... 61 Table 9 User Factors: Frequencies of Sources and Occurrences .................................................. 72 Table 10 Task-Related Factors: Frequencies of Sources and Occurrences ................................ 788 Table 11 Technological Factors: Frequencies of Sources and Occurrences ............................... 877 Table 12 Content Factors: Frequencies of Sources and Occurrences .......................................... 91 Table 13 Factors Represented in the Documents......................................................................... 95 Table 14 Strongly Supported Factors.......................................................................................... 100 Table 15 Moderately Supported Factors .................................................................................... 102 Table 16 Weakly Supported Factors ........................................................................................... 103 Table 17 Common Factors .......................................................................................................... 104
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LIST OF FIGURES Page
Figure 1 Three tier information integration architecture............................................................. 13 Figure 2 Delone & McLean’s model for success ........................................................................... 30 Figure 3 ECM system implementation theoretical framework .................................................... 36 Figure 4 ECM system success factor research model ................................................................... 40 Figure 5 ECM factor occurrence frequency percentages ............................................................. 60 Figure 6 Managerial factor occurrence frequency percentages .................................................. 70 Figure 7 User factor occurrence frequency percentages ............................................................. 77 Figure 8 Task-related factor occurrence frequency percentages................................................. 86 Figure 9 Technological factor occurrence frequency percentages .............................................. 90 Figure 10 Content factor occurrence frequency percentages...................................................... 94 Figure 11 Updated ECM system success factor research model................................................ 119
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