Ingredients And Equipments

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Baking is no different from any other area of cooking, and as in other sectors only the best and the freshest raw material can guarantee good results. So selection of right kind of ingredients is of utmost importance.
Another basic need of a professional baker and confectioner is to purchase the equipment required. The design and size depends upon the volume of sale expected. So in this chapter we are going to learn about the ingredients and equipment required for running a bakery.
After reading this lesson, you will able to :
• list the ingredients used in bakery;
• select the right quality;
• classify ingredients into perishables, semi-perishables and nonperishables;
• list the various equipments used in bakery;
• suggest suitable methods of storage for different types of ingredients used in bakery;
• select the equipment on the basis of capacity and power;
• maintain the equipment for proper functioning and longer life;
• list suppliers for the equipment. '
You all know that a lot of things like fat, eggs, flour and sugar are used to prepare cakes and biscuits. But what are the other things apart from these? Let us now make a comprehensive list of ingredi-
nts commonly used in a bakery.
-- 1. Flour a) Wholemeal or whole wheat flour b) Brown flour c) White flour


d) Self raising flour e) Strong flour f) Soft flour

2. Yeast

a) Fresh b) Dry

3. Chemical Raising Agents a) Baking powder b) Ammonium bicarbonate c) Baking Soda

4. Salt

5. Cornflour

6. Milk

a) Liquid milk
b) Milk powder c) Condensed milk

} full fat
} low fat~ } skimmed

7. Cream

8. Shortening agents

a) Butter

b) Margarine

c) Hydrogenated faWanaspati

d) Refined oil

9. Egg

10. Sugar

11. a) Grain Sugar

f) Treacle

b) Castor Sugar

g) Liquid Glucose

c) Icing Sugar

h) Milk Sugar

d) Brown Sugar

i) Malt Sugar

e) Gold Syrup

j) Honey

12. Coco and Covering chocolate 13. Coconut


14. Coffee

15. Nuts


a) Almonds

b) Cashwenuts c) Walnuts d) Peanuts e) Pistachio nuts

16. meat and poultry products

17. Fresh fruits and vegetables

18. Candied fruits

a) Lemon and Orange Peel b) Tutty Fruity

19. Tinned/Canned fruits

a) Cherries c) Peaches e) Banana

b) Pineapple d) Mango f) Fruit Cocktail (mixed)

20. Spices and Aromatics

a) Charmagaz c) Cummin Seed e) Nutmeg g) Corriander Seeds i) Red chilli powder k) Cinnamom m) Sesame seeds 0) Aniseed q) Garlic

b) Cardamom - big and small d) Poppy Seeds f)'Mace h) Black pepper j) Cloves I) Onion seeds n) Mixed spices p) Ginger r) Saffron

21. Alcohol

a) Wines

b) Rum

c) Brandy - Cognac d) Liqueur

22. Food Colours

23. Essences

a) Vanilla c) Orange e) Lemon

b) Strawberry , d) Pineapple

The above ingredients can be classified into three categories depending upon their keeping quality, shelf life and the storage temperatures required.
a) Non-perishable - Items that can be stored for more-than 'a


month at room temperature, e.g. flour, sugar, salt, spices, cocoa and coffee powders, colours and essences, canned products. They just require proper circulation of air in the storage area and protection from rodents and pests.
b) Perishable - Items that can be stored for a couple of days at the most, at proper temperature, e.g. milk, cream, fresh fruits and vegetables, poultry and meat products.
c) Semi-perishable - are those items which do not come under any of the first two categories, i.e. they require proper storage temperature. But the period of storage is more than that for perishables, e.g. butter and other fats, chocolates, tins/cans after opening, eggs. etc.
Let us leam something more about the ingredients above.
.. Flour is the most important ingredient without which production in a
bakery or confectionery unit would be impossible. It is obtained by milling wheat. A wide variety of flour is available in the shops. Choosing the right one for the type of baking you are doing will ensure the best possible results. Here is a guide to help you choose.
To understand flour properly you must know something about wheat grain and its intemal structure.

Bran Endosperm
Fig. : A wheat grain revealed During milling both bran and germ are removed. Bran has sharp edges which tend to cut the cell structure of loaf during proving, thereby affecting the volume of bread. Germ has more oil which affects the keeping quality of flour.


Table 1 : Different types of flour and its uses

Whole Meal or Whole Wheat Flour

Brown Flour

White Flour

Self raising

Strong Flour

Weak Flour

1) Contains all 1) Coarser part

parts of wheat

of bran is

grain, i.e. Bran, removed



1) Most of the bran & germ is removed & contains mainly endosperm.

1) This flour has 1) This flour has 1) Contains higher

higher protein

higher protein

proportion of

content due to content due to starch

the wheat

the wheat

& less protein.

variety used

variety milling

or due to

used or due to

milling method method



2) Wholemeal flour is 'Atta' used for making chapatis and can be bought from provision stores.

2) Can be purchased from speciality food stores.

2) It is 'Maida' and can be bought from provision stores.

2) Available in speciality food stores.

2) Available in speciality food stores.

2) Available in speciality food stores.


3) Used for

3) Used for

making brown


bread ..


3) Used for breads, buns, cakes, biscuits, depending upon their protein content.

3) Used for cakes and pastries.

3) Used for breads, buns, patties.

3) Suitable for cakes and biscuits.




1. Fill in the blanks:

(i) whole meal flour consists of





(ii) Brown flour is used for making


(iii) The various types of milk used in bakery are


....................... and


2. Classify the following raw materials into perishable, semi-perishable.

A. Egg C. Condensed milk E. Cream

B. Milk D.Oil F. Butter


G. Orange Peel I. Yeas (fresh) K. Golden Syrup M. Corn flour O. Canned cherries Q.Rum

H. Fresh Vegetables J. Brown flour
L. Butter N. Cashew nuts
P. Coc,oa powder

Yeast is a unicellular micro-organism of plant origin. The biological name is saccharomyces cervisiae. Under right conditions the yeast increases by division and it is this process which makes yeast useful for baking. It needs air, moisture, warmth and nourishment (in the form of sugar) to multiply and produce carbondioxide to raise the dough. Yeast is available both in the fresh as well as the dried form. Let us study how they are different from each other.

a) Baking Powder - is a mixture of sodium bi-carbonate, cream of tatar (tartric acid) and a separator, usually rice or potato or com starch. Under the combined effect of air, moisture and warmth, carbon dioxide is produced from sodium bicarbonate which again causes fermentation. The separator prevents the two other ingredients from working prematurely by working as an insulator. The acid present neutralizes the left over soda so that no after taste is left in the product.
b) Ammonium bicarbonate - This also gives off carbon dioxide on receiving moisture, air and warmth but along with that ammonia gas is also produced which is pungent in flavour and if left in the product, gives a off taste.
c) Baking Soda-This is used frequently in commercial baking as it costs less. It contains sodium-bicarbonate which breaks into sodium carbonate, carbon dioxide and water. However residue of sodium carbonate leaves a bad taste and a dark colour which makes it not very suitable for most products except darker coloured chocolate cakes.
Chemical name of salt is sodium chloride. It contains 40% sodium and 60% chlorine. It is readily available in almost all parts of the world and is indispensable to cooking.
Used by the bakers, it confers flavour and also accentuates other
/ flavours. It has a stabilizing effect on gluten and controls the speed
of fermentation in yeast aerated goods. It also helps on retaining moisture.
Chiefly produced from maize. It is white in colour and mainly contains starch which gelatinizes by mixing with water at a temperature above 170°F. Thus it is used as a thickening agent in custards and other confectionery items. It can also be used to dilute the strength of flour by mixing in suitable proportions.
It is a moistening agent and contains about 87% water. It is also an enriching agent depending on the amount used or whether it full fat, low fat or skimmed.
Dried milk powder is very popular in baking because it occupiesless


space, keeps well if correctly stored, can be easily reconstituted or.' can be sieved with flour and used in dry form. Condensed milk is produced by evaporation of water under vacuum. It is generally sweetened.
It is used in cakes, desserts and for decoration and makes the dish special. It is the skimmed milk fat and has a pleasant flavour. The creams vary in thickness and richness. The higher the butter-fat content the less likely cream is to fall after whipping.
Fresh milk and cream both need to be stored in the refrigerator and cannot be stored for more than a few days.
Different types of shortening agents

1. Made by chuming milk fat.
2. Contains about 85% fat and rest is water and milk protein.
3. Has a pleasant aroma and good for bakery due to this.
4. Butter should be firm and it should not be stored at a temperature below 40°F.

1. It is a cheaper butter substitute made from hydrqgenated oils.
2. Controls hydrogenated oils, ripened milk, colour and salt.
3. Has no aroma but rest of the physical characteristics similar to butter.
4. Can be stored at room temperature.

Vanaspati Ghee

Refined oil

1. Mde by hydrogooating vegetable oils.

1. Consists of 100% fats with low melting point. .

2. Contains mainly fats.

2. A liquid at room temperature it cannot be used for creaming.

3. Has grainy texture and no aroma. Due to the grainy texture less suitable for baked goods.

3. Mainly used for frying and tin greasing ..

4. Can be stored at 4. Can be stored at

room temperature.

room temperature.


After flour, eggs are the second structure forming materials used by the baker. Both, egg white and yellow are of great importance. Egg white whisks easily and makes cakes and pudding lighter. During baking it solidifies to lock in the air. Egg yolk emulsifies well and is used as a glaze and also in ice-creams and cream desserts.

An average egg weighs around 45-50 g. A fresh egg sinks in water

whereas a stale one floats. The yolk of the egg should be firm. Egg

can be stored in the refrigerator for a week or two.





a) Grain Sugar : This is the sugar we use normally at home. It contains 99% water soluble carbohydrates and 1% water.

b) Castor Sugar : is a finer form of granulated sugar and is suitable for creaming in baking.

c) Icing Sugar: It is a very finely powdered white sugar which is used for icing, glazes, dusting cakes after baking and for almond paste.

d) Brown Sugar : These are the un-refined raw sugars, some having names that refer to country of origin, e.g. Barbados, Demerara, etc. All brown sugars confer colour and some flavour. These sugars are ideal for rich cakes.

e) Golden Syrup: This amber coloured syrup is a by-product of sugar refining. It is used by the baker for ginger cakes and biscuits.

f) Honey: It is a thick natura: syrup obtained by bees from the nectar of flowers. It is used in fresh ginger breads, nuggets etc.

g) Treacle: It is a syrup much darker in colour and with a more pronounced flavour than golden syrup. It is made by diluting and filtering molasses and then concentrating. Treacle can be used for ginger goods, dark heavily fruited cakes and christmas pudding. The treacle replaces some of the sugar in the mixture.

h) Liquid Glucose/Corn syrup: It is made by boiling starch in water so that it is gelatinized. A weak acid is added to the gel to get sugar. It is used in cakes and biscuits and in sugar boiling.

i) Milk Sugar: Milk sugar or lactose is obtained from fresh and skimmed milk. It is used to impart additional flavour and sweetness.

j) Malt Sugar: Malt sugar or maltose is obtained from milk syrup and adds sweetness.


Both are obtained from cocoa beans. Cocoa powder is low fat and

has no sugar whereas chocolate has some sugar, cocoa, butter and

milk added in varying quantities. Both cocoa powder and chocolate are used considerably in confectionery products.


Cocoa powder can be stored in air tight containers in well ventilated places for months. Chocolate should be wrapped in polythene paper or aluminium foil and then refrigerated.


Coffee is an excellent flavouring for creams, fillings and icings.
These are of great importance in cakes, pastries and puddings. Walnut, pistachio nut, groundnut or peanut, cashewnuts, coconut and almonds, raisins, sultanas and currants are more frequently used.
These are used as fillings for savoury items like patties, vol-au-vent, pizza, barquettes etc. They should always be fresh and of good quality. These need to be refrigerated, if stored for a couple of days.
Fresh fruits and vegetables form an integral part of any bakery. They should be fresh when used.
Orange and Lemon peel and tutty-frutty are used both in cakes and breads. They should always be washed, dried and chopped before using.


1. Tick mark (--/)the appropriate answers 1. Fresh/Dry yeast gives better products. 2. Baking powder/baking soda is more suitable for chocolate cakes. 3. A fresh/stale egg floats on water. 4. Castor/Brown sugar is unrefined raw sugar. 5. Cocoa powder/chocolate is low in fat and sugar.

2. Fill in the blanks.

1. Dried milk powder is popular in bakery industry because it

can be used in



2. The colour of the yeast tells us whether it is fresh or


3. Salt gives

to the products.

4. Comflour is generally used as a


in confectionery.

5. Eggs form the

of the baked products.

6. .

.is the finest form of sugar and is used

for .......................•..; and



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Ingredients And Equipments