An Evaluation of Mahatma Gandhi National Rural


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The International journal of analytical and experimental modal analysis

ISSN NO:0886-9367

An Evaluation of Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (MGNREGA) implemented in Tamil Nadu
A.Adaikkala Mary*1Dr.D Elango*2
1Research Scholar (Part Time), Department of Economics, Government Arts College, Coimbatore-18, India.
2Assistant Professor, Department of Economics, Government Arts College, Coimbatore-18, India.
[email protected],[email protected]

ABSTRACT
National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (NREGS) enacted by legislation on August 25, 2005 and it was renamed as the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (MGNREGS) on 2nd October, 2009.The MGNREGS to provide for enhanced livelihood security for households in rural areas by providing at least 100 days of guaranteed wage employment in every financial year to every household whose adult members volunteer to do unskilled manual work. In this paper, an attempt is made to focus on performance evaluation of MGNREGS in Tamil Nadu. It is based on the secondary data to rebuild the rural life and livelihood on the basis of various secondary data. The data analysis is carried out by using statistical methods.
Keywords: Employment, Rural Areas, Performance, Tamil Nadu.

INTRODUCTION
India has great relation with rural community. More than 70% of India‟s population still lives in rural areas. Among the poor people in rural areas, majority of them work in nonagricultural and available daily wage activities. The weaker and poorer sections of the rural society and confronted with caste and class divides and male female disparities, in many aspects of employment and work environment, especially in job changes from less productivity agricultural to more productive non-agricultural activities almost on a day today basis.

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The problem of rural poverty possesses serious challenges for the nation and policy makers. Having been second most populous country in the world with over 1.37 billion people, India is still lacking the development in many areas. Majority of rural population are unskilled labour depending heavily on labour work. Due to urbanization, the conventional employment in agriculture started to decrease and as a result the rural people started to face the problems of unemployment.
The government of India formulated an Act called National Rural Employment Guarantee Act‟ (NREGA) in the year 2005 to bring sustainable and holistic development through a multi pronged strategy aiming in the process, to reach out the most disadvantaged sections of the society. Later NREGA has been renamed as the „Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA). This Act was the first ever law internationally that guarantees the wage employment and minimum level of livelihood security in the rural area on an unprecedented scale. It aims at enhancing livelihood security of household in rural area by providing at least one hundred days of guaranteed wage employment in a financial year to every household whose adult members volunteer to do unskilled manual work. Singh and Nauriyal (2009), stated that the income of the household to the extent of 10-20 per cent and hence no significant improvement in their income and employment levels. Further, marginal improvement in curtail of migration and indebtedness were found. Maulick (2009), Pankaj and Tankha (2010) stated that the female employment holds a great part and the benefits are reflected in greater economic security, higher farm wages, lower migration and building of infrastructure. The women workers have gained more from the scheme primarily because of the paid employment opportunity and its benefits have been realized through the income-consumption effects, intra-households effects and the enhancement of choice and capability. Pani and Iyer (2011) found that the multiplier affects of expenditure from MGNREGA are quite significant, ranging from 3.1 in the north-west region to 3.6 in the Malnad and coastal districts of the State.
It is realized that the MGNREGA has been implementing across the nation effectively including Tamil Nadu. This scheme has increased household income marginally and control in certain level of indebtedness among the rural people. In this context the research paper is formulated to find the implementation of MGNREGA in Tamil Nadu.

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OBJECTIVES
1.To study the Job card issued and employment generation in Tamil Nadu. 2. To assess the demographic background of rural community in the state of Tamil Nadu. 3. To evaluate the implementation of MGNREGS in Tamil Nadu.
METHODOLOGY The study is based on the secondary data collected from journals, articles, internet and
Report of Ministry of Rural Development for the years 2016-2017, 2017-2018 and 2018-19. The data analysis is carried out by using statistical methods like percentage and average to draw the conclusions on developmental situation at the grassroots level. Suggestions and conclusion were made based on the analysis of the data.
FUNDING PATTERN BY CENTRAL AND STATE GOVERNMENT FOR MGNREGA
The total expenses and its costs are divided by 90:10 ratio shared by both central and state Government. The central Government bared the entire cost of wages for unskilled manual workers. About 75 percent of the cost of material and wages for skilled and semiskilled workers are taken care of by central Government. The administrative expenses of inter alia, the salary and allowances for programme officers and their supportive staff and work site facilities costs are bared by central Government. The entire administrative expenses of the state employment guarantee council are occurred in central list by MGNREGA.
The state Government also playing a pivotal role in implementation of MGNREGA scheme in their respective states. One third of funds are provided by state Government for the implementation of MGNREGA scheme. The role of state Government is not only to sanction 25 percent of the share apart from that the implementing the MGNREGA effectively. Even if the central Government provides 75 percent of financial assistance to MGNREGA Scheme, the entire schemes are monitored and implemented by the state Government.

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TABLE: 1

JOB CARD ISSUSED & NO. OF WORKERS IN MGNREGA SCHEME

IN TAMIL NADU: 2019

(in Lakhs)

Sl.

Descriptions

No. of Percen

No

Workers tage

1 Total No. of Active Job
Cards

71.09

84.19

2 Total No. of Job Cards
issued
3 Total No. of Active

84.43 88.33

100 71.83

Workers

4

100

Total No. of Workers 122.96

Source: Ministry of Rural Development, Annual Report:2019.

MGNREGA scheme job card permitted an individual in rural households to apply for paid with the Gram Panchayat in their concern local area, ensures transparency of processes and also protects workers from possible fraudulent in a particular work. In MGNERGA the job card is a key document provided by respective officials and that records workers‟ entitlements under this scheme. It is legally empowers the registered households to apply for work, ensures transparency and protects workers benefit. As per the report there 84.43 lakhs of job cards were issued in Tamil Nadu till 2019. It is impressed that there was 84.19 lakhs of card holders are still active participants in MGNREGA. But about 13.34 lakhs of job card holders have not participated in MGNREGA scheme. This is because of most of them are piece work card holders, they will be called based on piece work supposed to be done in particular area.

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TABLE- 2 SC, ST & WOMEN PERSONIN PERCENTAGE AS OF TOTAL PERSON DAYS
UNDER THE SCHEME OF MGNREGA IN TAMIL NADU: 2019

Person Days

2016 2017

2017 2018

2018 - 2019

SC person days % as of

28.42

29.42

26.81

total person

days

ST person

days % as of 1.11

1.11

1.4

total person

days

Women Person days

85.68

85.68

85.95

out of Total

(%)

Source: Ministry of Rural Development, Annual Report:2019.

The Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes comprise about 16.6 % and 8.6 % respectively of India Population (according to the 2011 census). There are 76 SC communities are notified in Tamil Nadu (Amendment ) Act, 1776. Tamil Nadu stands sixth place in the country among the states having the highest percentage of Scheduled Caste population. A majority of this population is economically deprived and socially backward. So, their access in education, employment and other income generating opportunities are very much limited. As far as the MGNREGA scheme is concerned, around 30 percent of Scheduled Caste people and just 1 percent of Schedule Tribe peoples have engaged in this scheme. When we compare with total Scheduled Caste population, their participation in MGNREGA scheme is somewhat better manner. But the Scheduled Tribe people weremuchmarginalized compare with their total population. It is suggested that the Government of Tamil Nadu should take an appropriate steps to include more tribe people in MGNREGA scheme. It is impressed that around 86 percent of women are engaged in MGNREGA scheme, int he current fiscal till October, 2019 women availed of more than 50 percent of employment created under MGNREGA scheme. Their participation has been growing since the inception of the Act 2006, under the Act they take up 79 percent of the employment created average in India. In Tamil Nadu is an example state recorded of 86 percent women have engaged in MGNREGA scheme.

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TABLE - 3

NATURE OF MGNREGA SCHEME WORKS CARRIED OUT IN TAMIL NADU:

2016-17 TO 2018-19

(in lakhs)

Work

2016-2017

2017-2018

Total No. of Works

Taken-up

6.08

7.72

Number of Ongoing

Works

3.24

3.41

Number of Completed

Works

2.84

4.31

Source: Ministry of Rural Development, Annual Report:2019.

2018-2019 9.84 4.51 5.33

The nature of MGNREGA scheme works carried out in Tamil Nadu is: Rural sanitation related works, such as, individual household latrines, school toilet units, Anganwadi toilets either independently or in convergence with schemes of other Government Departments to achieve „open defecation free‟ status. and solid and liquid waste management as per prescribed norms;Providing all-weather rural road connectivity to unconnected villages and to connect identified rural production centres to the existing pucca road network; and construction of pucca internal roads or streets including side drains and culverts within a village and Construction of play fields etc., In Tamil Nadu itself there are 50 percent MGNREGA scheme works completed during given stipulated period. It is suggested that the Government of Tamil Nadu should take an appropriate step to get the money from Central Government as well as the state Government should contribute it‟s share in on time.

TABLE-4

FINANCIAL FLOW FROM CENTRAL GOVERNMENT TO TAMIL NADUFOR

MGNREGA SCHEME (Rs.in Crores)

Financial Progress

2016-2017

2017-2018

2018-2019

Total center Released

45.52

58.31

49.51

Total Expenditure

56.70

63.53

57.66

Source: Ministry of Rural Development, Annual Report:2019.

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As per the Union Budget document tabled by Union Finance Minister in Parliament, there are Rs.61,500 Crore has been allocated for Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme for the year 2020-21. The fund allocated for MGNREGA scheme was getting downward of 13 per cent from the total estimated expenditure for 201920 which was at Rs.71,001.81 Crore. As far as the Tamil Nadu is concerned, the allocation was gradually increased Rs.45.52 Crore to Rs.58.31 Crores between 2016-17 and 2017-18. But the fund was reduced to Tamil Nadu of Rs.49.51 Crore during 2018-19. It is realized that the MGNREGA scheme is really a productive programme which provide more employment opportunity to rural people especially for women.
The Central Government had decided to expedite the transfer of cash under the Direct Benefit Transfer (DBT) scheme while laying emphasis on „individual asset creation‟ under the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA). It is suggested that the MGNREGA scheme which is more reliable programme to protect the poor people especially rural people in pandemic period. Both Central and State Government should allocate more fund for MGNREGA scheme and also make the programme as an effective one.
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION
The Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment guarantee scheme was brought in order to provide Employment guarantee that can lead to poverty alleviation and upliftment of rural society. Under this MGNREGA scheme the Job cards are provided the the job Cards are legally empowers the registered households to apply for work, ensures transparency and protects workers benefit in MGNREGA scheme. There are about 13.34 lakhs of job card holders have not participated in MGNREGA scheme work. This is because of most of the card holders are piece work card holders. As far as the MGNREGA scheme is concerned, around 30 percent of Scheduled Caste people and just 1 percent of Schedule Tribe peoples have engaged in this scheme in Tamil Nadu. Compare with total Scheduled Caste population, the percentage of participation in MGNREGA scheme is shown in somewhat better manner. The Scheduled Tribe people was very marginalised compare with their total population. It is suggested that the Government of Tamil Nadu should take an appropriate steps to include more tribe people in MGNREGA scheme. It is impressed that around 86 percent of women are engaged in MGNREGA scheme in Tamil Nadu. In the current fiscal

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year till October, 2019 the women had availed of more than 50 percent of employment created by MGNREGA scheme.
In Tamil Nadu itself there are 50 percent MGNREGA scheme works completed during given stipulated period. It is suggested that the Government of Tamil Nadu should take an appropriate steps to get the money from Central Government to complete the entire projects. As far as the Tamil Nadu is concerned, the allocation was gradually increased between 2016-17 and 2017-18. But the fund was reduced to Tamil Nadu during 2018-19. It is realised that the MGNREGA scheme is really a productive programme which provide more employment opportunity to rural people especially for women. It is suggested that the MGNREGA scheme which is more reliable programme to protect the poor people especially rural people in pandemic period. Both Central and State Government should allocate more fund for MGNREGA scheme and also make the programme as an effective one.
REFERENCES
1. Ashok Kumar H (2016), “Performance of MGNREGA in Mysore district, Karnataka”, International Journal of Research in Humanities and Social Studies, Vol. 3, Issue. 6, June 2016, PP. 1-7, ISSN. 2394-6288 (print) & ISSN. 2394-6296 (online).
2. Amutha Nandhini and Shanmugam (2016), “A study on Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (MGNREGS) in Perundurai Block Erode district in Tamil Nadu”, Indian Journal of Applied Research, Vol. 6, Issue. 8, August 2016, PP. 123 – 125, ISSN. 2249 – 555x
3. Maulick(2009), “Implications of NREGA: A case study”, Kurukshetra, Vol. 58, Issue. 2, December 2009, PP. 37-39.
4. Pankaj A and Tankha R 2010, “Empowerment effects of the NREGS on women workers: A study in four states”, Economic & Political Weekly, XLV, Vol. 30, PP. 45-55.
5. Pani N and Iyer C 2011, “Evaluation of the Impact of Processes in the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme in Karnataka”, National Institute of Advanced Studies (NIAS), 2011.
6. Rajiv Ranjan (2016), “Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA) : A critical appraisal of its performance since its inception”, IMJ, Vol. 8, Issue. 2, July- December 2016, PP . 55 – 73.

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7. SinghandNauriyal(2009), “System and Process Review and Impact Assessment of NREGS in the state of Uttarakhand”, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee, July 2009.
8. Sruthi and Vezhaventhan (2018), “An evaluation on Mahatma Gandhi National Rural employment guarantee Scheme (MGNREGA) in Rural Development in India”, International Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics, Vol.120,Issue. 5,PP. 101–121, ISSN. 1314 – 3395.
9. Usha kiran V and Maschender Goud M 2013, “Performance Evaluation of MGNRES in Andhra Pradesh”, Southern Economist, Vol. 52, No. 7, PP. 41.
10. https://mnregaweb2.nic.in
11. http://nrega.nic.in
12. https://tnrd.gov.in

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An Evaluation of Mahatma Gandhi National Rural