Online Birth Registration & Certification System


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International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET)

Volume: 08 Issue: 07 | July 2021

www.irjet.net

e-ISSN: 2395-0056 p-ISSN: 2395-0072

Online Birth Registration & Certification System
Miss. Sonali Sanjay Chaudhari
Tilak Maharashtra Vidyapeeth, Department of Computer Science ------------------------------------------------------------------------***-------------------------------------------------------------------------
ABSTRACT
The manual method of obtaining birth certificate is complex and impractical for increase in birth rate. Birth registration is the official recording of a child’s birth by the State, but often feeds into a more comprehensive civil registration system that is maintained by government as a source of information about the population. The cost of obtaining a birth certificate, risk and stress of communicating with the National Population Commission (NPC) officials, loss of certificate are some of the possible problems of the manual process of obtaining birth certificate. Before a birth certificate can be issued by NPC, the birth must have been registered. It help us to make sure that adequate resources and budgets are made available to meet the needs of the population at large. The performance of the web-based birth certificate request application was evaluated in terms of speed, accessibility, cost and capacity. The proposed web-based birth certificate system results in having easily and globally accessible system, speeding up the process of issuing birth certificates. This system will help in eliminating having paper based certificate, it reduces stress of communicating with government officials and ultimately saves cost. Birth rate monitoring cannot be manually achieved. This is only possible when there is a web based or online system to register births. This will also help to create auto bar chart online and can help in to monitor specific regions as well. Also, will help citizens in obtaining birth certificates easily. The implementation of the proposed system is achieved using PHP for programming the interface and HTML, JavaScript, AJAX, JQUERY for the User Interface and MySQL for the database.
Keyword: -Birth Registration, Birth Certificate, Birth Rate Monitoring
INTRODUCTION
Birth Registration is a fundamental right of all children and a basic function of all modern governments. Promoting children’s right to birth registration falls clearly within UNICEF’s mandate. Birth Registration comprises two elements: entering details of a child’s birth into official government records, and issuing a birth certificate to the child’s parents, including information on the parents’ names, date and place of birth and further information such as nationality. There has been some progress, though small in raising birth registration levels.
Although birth registration is almost complete in all developed countries, the lack of progress on civil registration in many developing countries means that global inequalities in birth registration are now extreme. The births of approximately 230 million children under the age of 5 have not been registered. Of these, around 85 million are in sub-Saharan Africa, 135 million in Asia (east and south Asia and the Pacific) and the remainder in the rest of the world. Birth registration may also be vital for confirmation of nationality following tumultuous events such as armed conflict and situations of state succession. The registration of births and acquisition of citizenship are distinct processes; however, birth registration serves as important proof of the facts that form the basis for conferral of citizenship at birth. More specifically it establishes a legal record of where the child was born and who his or her parents are and thus whether the child can acquire citizenship on the basis of place of birth or descent. Children who are not registered are excluded from the benefits of citizenship in ways that vary between countries. A birth certificate may be required to obtain access to basic services such as health and education, and it can also help to protect children from situations of exploitation and violence, such as child marriage and child labor, and achieve convictions against those who have abused a child.
The conventional method of birth registration is by human inspection. Manual birth registration is complex and impractical for large increase in population. The cost of registering a child, loss of registration certificate by the parent and child, inaccurate population statistics are possible problems which inaccurate birth registration records can cause. Birth registration became an issue of utmost importance as a result of difficulties encountered while obtaining accurate population statistics essential in social services planning for any government and in ensuring that adequate resources and budgets are made available to address the needs of the populace. The use of globally accessible device for birth registration has shown great potential in this field. The performance of the Online National Database for Birth Registration was evaluated in terms of accessibility, speed, cost and capacity; and the result confirmed that the proposed Online National Database for Birth Registration will be able to assist government officials in terms of having a globally accessible system, speeding up birth registration process, reducing cost of registering a child and capable of keeping registration details for future use.

© 2021, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 7.529 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 4113

International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET)

Volume: 08 Issue: 07 | July 2021

www.irjet.net

e-ISSN: 2395-0056 p-ISSN: 2395-0072

Between 2000 and 2010 global birth registration levels rose only slightly, from 58 per cent to 65 percent. Certain trends in the international environment provide opportunities for rethinking approaches to birth registration. Birth registration is the continuous, permanent and universal recording, within the civil registry, of the occurrence and characteristics of births in accordance with the legal requirements of a country. Birth registration is the official recording of a child’s birth by the State. It is a permanent and official record of a child’s existence. Birth registration is part of an effective civil registration system that acknowledges the person’s existence before the law, establishes family ties and tracks the major events of an individual’s life, from live birth to marriage and death.

Figure 1.1: Prevalence of Birth Registration Under Age Five Years with Civil Authority in India from NFHS-3 and NFHS-4 As shown in the figure, presents information on prevalence birth registration under age five years with civil authority
in India from NFHS- 3 and NFHS-4; this includes 27 percent (NFHS -3) 62 percent of children with birth certificates and 14 percent (NFHS- 3) 18 percent are children which has registered the birth but don’t have certificate. Birth registration and subsequent issuance of a certificate do not only promote human rights to citizenship but it also facilitates human rights to good health, education, social security, and overall human development. Therefore, timely registration of children should be pursued as a right issue. This study found that high levels of birth registration were related to a high level of awareness among the urban population regarding birth registration. However, findings of this study seem to suggest that it is more of a privilege for children whose parents are educated, wealthy and live in urban areas.
Later birth certificates may be needed for many purposes: to obtain social security or a job in the formal sector; to buy or prove the right to inherit property; to obtain identity cards; to vote; and to obtain a passport. The lack of a birth certificate can have a serious, cumulative, negative effect on people’s life opportunities. As well as providing the individual with legal proof of identity, birth registration also plays a crucial role in the generation of vital statistics. Birth rate monitoring cannot be manually achieved. An automated software system is needed to enable instant monitoring of birth rate. This is only possible when there is a web based or online system to register births. As the births are being registered, a bar chart can be used to determine the rate of birth in specific regions. To achieve this, computer programmers need to develop a software system that runs online. The benefit of the system is that it will enable those in charge of taking statistics of birth rate to get needed information easily and with minimal stress.
© 2021, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 7.529 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 4114

International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET)

Volume: 08 Issue: 07 | July 2021

www.irjet.net

e-ISSN: 2395-0056 p-ISSN: 2395-0072

BACKGROUND
Registering a child’s birth is a critical first step towards safeguarding lifelong protection. Promoting children’s right to birth registration falls clearly within UNICEF’s mandate. There has been some progress, albeit small in raising birth registration levels. Between 2000 and 2010 global birth registration levels rose only slightly, from 58 per cent to 65 percent. Certain trends in the international environment provide opportunities for rethinking approaches to birth registration. Birth registration is the continuous, permanent and universal recording, within the civil registry, of the occurrence and characteristics of births in accordance with the legal requirements of a country. Birth registration is the official recording of a child’s birth by the State. It is a permanent and official record of a child’s existence. Birth registration is part of an effective civil registration system that acknowledges the person’s existence before the law, establishes family ties and tracks the major events of an individual’s life, from live birth to marriage and death (Cody, 2009).
Although birth registration is almost complete in all developed countries, the lack of progress on civil registration in many developing countries means that global inequalities in birth registration are now extreme. The births of approximately 230 million children under the age of 5 have not been registered. Of these, around 85 million are in subSaharan Africa, 135 million in Asia (east and south Asia and the Pacific) and the remainder in the rest of the world. But does this matter in their lives? Birth registration may signify the beginning of the legal contract between the individual and the State known as citizenship. Birth registration serves as important proof of the place of birth and parentage, and while birth registration does not in itself confer citizenship upon the child, it is often essential for its acquisition based on each country’s laws. Birth registration may also be vital for confirmation of nationality following tumultuous events such as armed conflict and situations of state succession. The registration of births and acquisition of citizenship are distinct processes, however birth registration serves as important proof of the facts that form the basis for conferral of citizenship at birth. More specifically it establishes a legal record of where the child was born and who his or her parents are and thus whether the child can acquire citizenship on the basis of place of birth (jus soli) or descent (jus sanguinis). Children who are not registered are excluded from the benefits of citizenship in ways that vary between countries. A birth certificate may be required to obtain access to basic services such as health and education, and it can also help to protect children from situations of exploitation and violence, such as child marriage and child labour, and achieve convictions against those who have abused a child.

Figure 1.2 : Percentage of children under five years of age whose births are registered, by region
© 2021, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 7.529 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 4115

International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET)

Volume: 08 Issue: 07 | July 2021

www.irjet.net

e-ISSN: 2395-0056 p-ISSN: 2395-0072

Large differences can be found in the coverage of birth registration among regions. Western Europe and North America have the highest levels of birth registration, with fully 100 per cent of children under age 5 registered. This is followed by Eastern Europe and Central Asia, at 99 per cent, and Latin America and the Caribbean, at 94 per cent.
The lowest levels of birth registration are found in sub-Saharan Africa: In Eastern and Southern Africa, only 40 per cent of children are registered by their fifth birthday, while the level in West and Central Africa is slightly higher, at 51 per cent.
In adulthood, birth certificates may be needed for many purposes: to obtain social security or a job in the formal sector; to buy or prove the right to inherit property; to obtain identity cards; to vote; and to obtain a passport. The lack of a birth certificate can have a serious, cumulative, negative effect on people’s life opportunities. As well as providing the individual with legal proof of identity, birth registration also plays a crucial role in the generation of vital statistics.8 Birth registration is part of national civil registration systems that also record marriages and deaths. Civil registration provides the demographic data that are needed by governments to track the size, differentials and trends of their populations. When complete and accurate, civil registration facilitates democratic governance. It enables governments to develop policies and plans for basic service delivery and social and economic development that respond to the needs of different sectors of their populations. Through these mechanisms, civil registration facilitates the access of both children and adults to protection under the law, to services and entitlements and to social and economic opportunities, and can improve their ability to exercise their civil rights (UNICEF, 2002).
Due to the benefits that accrue from using the computer system, it can be applied to solve numerous problems. Birth rate monitoring cannot be manually achieved. An automated software system is needed to enable instant monitoring of birth rate. This is only possible when there is a web based or online system to register births. As the births are being registered, a bar chart can be used to determine the rate of birth in specific regions. To achieve this, computer programmers need to develop a software system that runs online. The benefit of the system is that it will enable those in charge of taking statistics of birth rate to get needed information easily and with minimal stress.
OBJECTIVE
 Used to easily register for the Birth Certification.  The system minimized paperwork for Birth Application.  As the paper-based documents can easily be damaged and lost.  Availability of the real-time data.  It also resolved the risk of tripping to and fro User just to apply for Birth Application and to get the certificate.  The system also saves time than the manual process.  Digital based documents are considered environment friendly.  Paper based documents are Hard to recover as compared to Digital.  Can easily verify without wasting much time going to the place for Birth Certification.  It will facilitate the easy presentation of reports pertaining to birth monitoring  The database can be used for record storage, processing, retrieval, and certification.  Flexible system that can be adjusted based on changing requirements and to develop a system that can improve
operational efficiency.

© 2021, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 7.529 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 4116

International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET)

Volume: 08 Issue: 07 | July 2021

www.irjet.net

e-ISSN: 2395-0056 p-ISSN: 2395-0072

Why Is Birth Registration so Important?

Figure 1.3 : Birth Registration Chart
PURPOSE
In this proposed work, is to proffer solutions to current backdrops experienced in the registration of birth. To resolved the issues and difficulties faced by citizens for the birth registration and again dealing with the government people to and fro for the certificate. So that citizen can easily get the certificate without wasting much time of self and of the government. Thereby fostering a more effective and can be taken easily with the online system and efficient data collection, storage becomes easy and managing the paper based certificate becomes difficult one can also lost it, processing becomes easy and retrieval method in case of any requirement of the certificate we can get it online. This project would also provide a means for nation planning by monitoring the birth rate increase or decrease and also on basis of that we can plan for the young citizens. Population Forecasting can be done using the reports option and pulling out the reports from system and can design the charts to get the quick information.
SCOPE
This study covers design and implementation of an online birth rate monitoring information record system. As Birth certificates may be needed for many purposes: to obtain social security or a job in the formal sector; to buy or prove the right to inherit property; to obtain identity cards; to vote; and to obtain a passport. The lack of a birth certificate can have a serious, cumulative, negative effect on people’s life opportunities. As well as providing the individual with legal proof of identity, birth registration also plays a crucial role in the generation of vital statistics.8 Birth registration is part of national civil registration systems that also record marriages and deaths. Civil registration provides the demographic data that are needed by governments to track the size, differentials and trends of their populations. It enables governments to develop policies and plans for basic service delivery and social and economic development that respond to the needs of different sectors of their populations. Through these mechanisms, civil registration facilitates the access of both children and adults to protection under the law, to services and entitlements and to social and economic opportunities, and can improve their ability to exercise their civil rights (UNICEF, 2002).
© 2021, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 7.529 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 4117

International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET)

Volume: 08 Issue: 07 | July 2021

www.irjet.net

e-ISSN: 2395-0056 p-ISSN: 2395-0072

SYSTEM ANLYSIS AND DESIGN
Existing System of Online Birth Registration and Certificate System
From the investigation and data obtained from the present system, it has been observed that the present system made use of manual processes. The data are collected using an A4 paper that is divided into five section. Section one contains the details of the child, section two contains the details of the mother, section three contains the details of the father, section four contains the details of the informant and section five contains the details of the registrar after the information has been taken, the registrar transfer the data to a small tab given to them from the office then the registrar use a pen drive to copy the data and sends the data to the head office monthly.
Common challenges in Existing birth registration System:
1. Legal and policy framework
Limited or non-existent legal and policy framework: Often outdated and do not reflect United Nations standards. Discriminatory laws and policies: Do not to support universal registration e.g. ethnic minorities, single mothers, indigenous people or orphans can be discriminated against, preventing registration.
Un-harmonised CRVS laws and policies: Different laws support different CRVS components, making it hard to effectively govern CRVS activities in a coordinated manner.
2. Institutional framework:
Lack of coordination between Ministries: At the national level, the mandate for birth registration and vital statistics often sits with different ministries. At the local level, programs are often implemented in isolation and do not leverage the strengths of different authorities.
Lack of effective governance mechanisms: Relevant technical working groups and/or steering committees are either missing or not able to provide oversight and coordination for CRVS strengthening efforts.
Un-harmonized CRVS laws and policies: Decentralized CRVS models have limited or no oversight at a national level.
3. Supply: Systems and processes
Process complexity: Multi-step, manual processes are inefficient and often not completed.
Lack of access to registration services: Centralised nature of registration process requires citizens to travel to regional capitals or even the national capital to collect birth certificate.
Lack of storage capacity, maintenance and reliability: Paper based records require a lot of space and are often poorly maintained, difficult to locate and vulnerable to loss or damage.
Lack of interoperability & inability to share information: (i) from civil registrars to centralised registry office (ii) between civil registrars, and (iii) Ministries e.g. birth registration data available to/from Ministry of Health.
Limited authenticity of applications and records: Difficulty in ensuring that the details and information provided about a birth are accurate.
Limited capacity of registration staff: Registration offices are often under-resourced, tasked with numerous activities and provided with limited training to effectively conduct their role.
Service Disruption: During emergency situations e.g. natural catastrophes or conflict, birth registration services are for example deprioritised or registration staff need to leave their office or duty
4. Demand for birth registration services
Lack of awareness: Limited understanding among the general population of the benefits and importance of birth registration.

© 2021, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 7.529 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 4118

International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET)

Volume: 08 Issue: 07 | July 2021

www.irjet.net

e-ISSN: 2395-0056 p-ISSN: 2395-0072

Lack of incentive: Proposed benefits of birth registration, such as access to healthcare or education, are either (I) received through other, usually informal, means, (II) not valuable enough to outweigh the direct and indirect costs associated with registration, or (III) not required till later on in life.
Direct costs: Formal or informal charges made for birth registration and certificates deter parents from engaging in the process.
Indirect costs: Costs of for example travel, accommodation and loss of earnings due to the need to travel long distances, or sometimes on multiple occasions in order to receive the birth certificate.
Indirect costs: Costs of for example travel, accommodation and loss of earnings due to the need to travel long distances, or sometimes on multiple occasions in order to receive the birth certificate.
Limited capacity of registration staff: Registration offices are often under-resourced, tasked with numerous activities and provided with limited training to effectively conduct their role.
Backlog of unregistered individuals: In addition to solving the challenge of registering all new born children, birth registration is also challenged by a backlog of the 230 million unregistered children, and an even larger number of unregistered adults around the world.
5. Monitoring and evaluation
Inability or unwillingness to manage performance: Poor monitoring and reporting mechanisms, low prioritisation and budget constraints prevent low registration rates from triggering remedial actions.
Lack of accountability: Civil Registrars or senior management are not held accountable for performance related to birth registration
6. Prioritisation
CRVS not prioritised by Governments: Governments do not prioritize CRVS which has a direct impact on the budgets made available to strengthen the birth registration system.
PROPOSED SYSTEM
DESIGN TOOLS OF THE PRESENT SYSTEM
In existing system drawback overcome in proposed system by designing the whole system Online and to exclude the paper work as much as possible. The process for filling application for registration of birth till the Generation of Certificate its configured online. The present system is design with Microsoft visual studio. Microsoft Visual Studio is an integrated development environment (IDE) from Microsoft, it is used to develop computer programs for Microsoft Windows, as well as web sites, web application and web services. Visual Studio uses Microsoft software development platforms such as Windows API, Windows Forms, Windows Presentation Foundation, Windows Store and Microsoft Silverlight. It can produce both native code and managed code. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/microsoft_Visual_Studio) Visual Studio includes a code editor supporting intelligence (the code completion component) as well as code refactoring.

© 2021, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 7.529 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 4119

International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET)

Volume: 08 Issue: 07 | July 2021

www.irjet.net

e-ISSN: 2395-0056 p-ISSN: 2395-0072

Figure 2.1: Visual Studio Code
Furthermore, In the system we have used MySQL that is the structured query language for storing the data and XAMPP which is one of the widely used cross-platform web servers, which helps developers to create and test their programs on a local webserver. PHP is the back end language for programming the interface we had chosen which is server side scripting language. HTML, JavaScript, AJAX, JQUERY for the User Interface. As this project is an approach to solve problems & respond to needs that brings about a positive and sustainable impact.
DEFINITION OF TERMS
Online: Refers a system which is connected to or delivered from the internet.
Birth: The process of childbearing
Monitor: To detect and inform about the presence of something.
Registration: the act or process of entering information about something in a book or system of public records
Verification: To make sure or demonstrate that (something) is true, accurate, or justified.
Rejected: refuse to agree, dismiss as inadequate, unacceptable, or faulty.
The present system is designed using MySQL as the backend database, HTML, JavaScript, AJAX, JQUERY for the User Interface and PHP as the application programming interface. The working of project is, the user first have to register himself and if registered then can login into the portal for Birth registration or viewing details. User can register the birth by entering the details regarding child birth. Also, the user can check if the birth Application is verified or not. Users can export the details. The Birth Certificate will be available and can be printed once its verified. Admin will be having the rights to verify and if anything, invalid he can reject and also have rights to add the new application. Admin will have the dashboard in which he can monitor how many new registrations are done , how many he have to verify and how many is rejected. Admin can take the reporting of the birth rate. Which will ultimately help to monitor them and get the reporting in fraction of seconds that too online. It will facilitate the easy presentation of reports pertaining to birth monitoring.
© 2021, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 7.529 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 4120

International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET)

Volume: 08 Issue: 07 | July 2021

www.irjet.net

e-ISSN: 2395-0056 p-ISSN: 2395-0072

ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN
The architectural design is concerned with the architecture of the system. The online database for birth registration will make use of the client-server architecture in which the work of the system is divided between client and servers. The Online Database System for Birth Registration is divided into the three tiers: the client tier, middle tier and the backend tier.
The client tier is responsible for presenting the data to the user, interacting with the user and communicating with the backend tier of the system. Client tier is the only part of the system visible to the user.
The middle tier is responsible for processing. The XAMPP server (Cross-Platform Apache MySQL and PHP) provides control to the traffic within the system. It acts as the interface between the client tier and backend tier.
The backend tier is the system information infrastructure. This tier includes relational database management system. In such case, the Online Database System for Birth Registration make use of MySQL as the Database Management System (DBMS).

Figure 3.1: System Architectural Design DETAILED DESIGN The detailed design is concerned with designing individual components to fit the architecture of the system (i.e, the system design) using object-oriented analysis. The detailed design of the system would lay more emphasis on information management, birth registration and printing of birth certificate. The Unified Modeling Language (UML) is used for detailing the design. The Unified Modeling Language (UML) is a language for visualizing, specifying, constructing and documenting object-oriented software systems. It has been widely accepted as a standard for modeling software system and is supported by a great number of CASE tools (Computer Aided Software Engineering tools)
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International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET)

Volume: 08 Issue: 07 | July 2021

www.irjet.net

e-ISSN: 2395-0056 p-ISSN: 2395-0072

FIGURE 3.2: A UML Diagram for an Online Database for Birth Registration and Certificate system ER Diagram ER- Diagram which shows tha data base design is used to model and design relational databases, in terms of logic and flow of the Online Birth Registration and Certification Flow.
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Online Birth Registration & Certification System