Guidelines for Management of Acute Myocardial Infarction


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Guidelines for Management of Acute Myocardial Infarction
Amal Kumar Banerjee*, Soumitra Kumar**

Abstract
These Guidelines summarize and evaluate all currently available evidence on Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI) with the aim of assisting physicians in selecting the best management strategies for a typical patient, suffering from AMI, taking into account the impact on outcome, as well as the risk/ benefit ratio of particular diagnostic or therapeutic means. Rapid diagnosis and early risk stratification of patients presenting with AMI are important to identify patients in whom early interventions can improve outcome. AMI can be defined from a number of different perspectives related to clinical, electrocardiographic (ECG), biochemical, and pathological characteristics. Quantitative assessment of risk is useful for clinical decision making.
For patients with the clinical presentation of AMI within 12 h after symptom onset, early mechanical (PCI) or pharmacological reperfusion should be performed. Platelet activation and subsequent aggregation play a dominant role in the propagation of arterial thrombosis and consequently are the key therapeutic targets in the management of AMI. Adjunctive therapy with antiplatelets and antithrombotics is essential. A recommendation for routine urgent PCI ( within 24 h ) following successful fibrinolysis seems to be most practical option. In India, pharmacoinvasive therapy is the best option.

Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) can be defined from a number of different perspectives that pertain to clinical, electrocardiographic (ECG), biochemical and pathological characteristics. The guidelines that will be mentioned in this article refer to patients presenting with symptoms of ischaemia and persistent ST-segment elevation on the ECG (STEMI).

Initial Diagnosis and Early Risk Stratification
Rapid diagnosis and early risk stratification of patients

Table 1 : Routine prophylactic therapies in the acute phase of STEMI

Recommendations Aspirin : Loading dose 150-300 mg followed by maintenance dose of 75-100 mg Clopidogrel : Loading 300-600 mg; maintenance dose of 75mg Prasugrel : 60 mg loading followed by 10 mg maintenance for primary PCI Non-selective and selective COX-2 agents I.V. b-blocker Oral blocker ACE-inhibitor : oral formulation on first day for all patients in whom it is not contraindicated for high-risk patients Nitrates Calcium antagonists Magnesium Lidocaine Glucose-insulin-potassium infusion

Class Level IA
IA
IC
III C IIa B IC IIa A
IIb A III B III A III B III B

*Senior Consultant & Intervention Cardiologist, AMRI Hospital, Salt Lake, Kolkata; Formerly, Cardiology Division, Institute of Cardiovascular Sciences, IPGEME&R, SSKM Hospital, Kolkata; **Professor, Department of Medicine (Division of Cardiology), Vivekananda Institute of Medical Sciences, Kolkata; Chief Co-ordinator (Academic Services – Cardiology), Rabindranath Tagore International Institute of Cardiac Sciences, Kolkata

presenting with acute chest pain constitute the pillars of success in STEMI management. An efficient regional system of care based on pre-hospital diagnosis, triage and rapid transportation to the best available facility holds the key to success of treatment and significantly improves outcome.
Initial Diagnosis of STEMI
• History of chest pain / discomfort lasting for 10-20 minutes or more (not responding to nitroglycerine)
• ECG : Persistent ST-segment elevation or (presumed) new left bundle-branch block. Repeated ECG recordings often needed since ECG can be equivocal in early hours
• Elevated markers of myocardial necrosis (CK-MB, troponins) can be sometimes helpful in deciding to perform coronary angiography (eg. in LBBB) but one should not wait for the results to initiate reperfusion therapy
• 2D-echocardiography rules out major myocardial ischaemia by demonstrating absence of wall motion abnormalities. Valuable in cases when diagnosis of STEMI is in doubt.
• Older age, higher Killip class, elevated heart rate, lower systolic blood pressure and anterior location of the infarct are important factors in risk-stratification of STEMI patients. Other important predictors are previous infarction, height, time to treatment, diabetes and smoking status.
First Steps of Care
i. Pain relief : Intravenous opioids (4 – 8mg morphine) with additional doses of 2 mg at 5 – 15 minutes intervals until pain is relieved. [Class I Level C recommendation].
ii. Oxygen : 2 – 4 L/min by mask or nasal prongs should be administered to those who are breathless or who have any features of heart failure or shock.
iii. Tranquilizer : It may be appropriate to administer a tranquilizer in very anxious patients.
Recommendations for initial management of acute STEMI are based on most recent ACC/AHA Guidelines for Management of Patients with ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction.1,2,3

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Table 2 : Factors to Consider in Deciding Mode of Reperfusion in STEMI

Key Factor Time from Symptom Onset
High-risk Patient
Bleeding Risk
Time Required for Transfer

Clinical Scenario
Very early presentation < 1 hour
< or > 3 hours, significant transfer delay
< or > 3 hours, no significant transfer delay
Cardiogenic shock
Pulmonary edema
Electrical Instability
TIMI risk score > 5
Contraindications to fibrinolytic therapy
Risk of bleeding / Intracranial hemorrhage
Early or late presentation, significant transfer delay
Early or late presentation, no significant transfer delay

Favored Therapy

Lysis

PCI







√ √ √ √ √





Recommendations by the Task Force on the management of STsegment elevation acute myocardial infarction of the European Society of Cardiology4 for initial management of acute STEMI are similar and are enlisted in Table1.
An angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) should be administered to STEMI patients who are intolerant of ACEIs and who have either clinical or radiological signs of heart failure or LVEF less than 0.40 [IC]. Valsartan and candesartan have established efficacy for this recommendation.
Lipid management : A fasting lipid profile (or obtaining one from recent past records for all STEMI patients) should be performed within 24 hours of symptom onset and lipid-lowering medication namely statins should be initiated before discharge [IA].Treatment goals for LDL-C after STEMI should be < 100 mg/ dl [IA] and further reduction to < 70 mg/dl appears reasonable [IIa-A]. Dietary advice on discharge should be given to all STEMI patients especially emphasizing on < 7% of total calories from saturated fat and < 200 mg/day of cholesterol [IA]. For patients with non-HDL-C < 130 mg/dl and who also have HDL-C < 40 mg/ dl, special emphasis should be given on life-style modification e.g. exercise, weight loss and smoking cessation [IB]. Drugs like niacin or fibrate to raise HDL-C in this situation have IIa recommendation (Level of evidence : B) after achieving LDL-C < 100 mg/dl with statins. However, if triglycerides are ≥ 500 mg/ dl, niacin or fibrates should be initiated before LDL-lowering therapy in order to prevent pancreatitis [IC].

Selection of Reperfusion Strategy
A. In hospitals with PCI capability : A total of 23 published randomized controlled trials have compared primary PCI to fibrinolytic therapy in patients with STEMI. A metaanalysis reported the short and long-term outcomes of the 7,739 patients (3,872 randomized to primary PCI and 3,867 randomized to fibrinolytic therapy) enrolled in these trials.5 In this analysis, primary PCI was superior to fibrinolytic

therapy in reducing overall short-term death (7% vs. 9%, p=0.0002), nonfatal reinfarction (3% vs. 7%, p<0.0007), stroke (1.0% vs/ 2.0%, p=0.0004), and the combined endpoint of death, nonfatal reinfarction and stroke (8% vs. 14%, p<0.0001).
B. In hospitals without PCI capability. The ACC/AHA guidelines suggest that four factors are to be considered when deciding whether to use fibrinolytic therapy or transfer the patient for primary PCI while a patient presents to a hospital without PCI capability. These are :
i. Time from symptom onset
ii. Clinical risk of STEMI
iii. Risk of bleeding
iv. Time required for transport to a PCI centre
Anticipated prolonged transport delay to a PCI centre such that door-to-balloon time minus door-to-needle time is > 60 minutes. However, in a recent analysis of sixteen randomized trials, Tarantini et al6 concluded that acceptable reperfusion delay to prefer primary angioplasty over fibrin-specific thrombolytic therapy is affected (mainly) by the patient’s mortality risk i.e. 1 hour does not fit all. The acceptable PPCI-related delay (the time that nullifies the advantage of PPCI over thrombolytic therapy [TT]) is influenced by the baseline risk mortality and by the presentation delay, as illustrated by the following equation, obtained by the regression analysis :
Z = 0.59c - 0.033Y - 0.003W – 1.3
(where Z is the absolute 30-days reduction in mortality of PPCI over TT, c the mortality risk, U the PPCI-related delay, and W the presentation delay). Widimsky7 wrote in his editorial that widespread use of Tarantini’s equation for individual patients would add unnecessary complexity on the pre-hospital STEMI care in regions where PPCI is readily available. However, he observed that the suggested calculation may be an ideal solution for sparsely populated regions with long transfer distances or for regions with suboptimal patient care organization.
Ready availability of the catheterization laboratory in question, skill of the personnel involved (Operator experience greater than a total of 75 primary cases per year and team experience greater than a total of 36 primary PCI cases per year) and vascular access difficulties are the other issues that need to be considered.
Factors to be considered in deciding mode of reperfusion in STEMI have been shown in Table 2.
Taking into account all the studies and registries, ESC Guidelines for STEMI (2008) recommend that primary PCI (balloon inflation) should be performed within 2 hours after first medical contact (FMC) in all cases. However, for patients presenting early with a large amount of myocardium at risk, a maximum delay of only 90 minutes after FMC seems to be a reasonable recommendation.
Special Issues Related to Primary PCI
1. Duration of thienopyridine therapy : In patients receiving a stent either bare-metal stent (BMS) or drug-eluting stent (DES) during PCI for ACS, clopidogrel 75 mg daily (Level of evidence : B) or prasugrel 10 mg daily (Level of evidence : B) should be given for at least 12 months. Continuation of clopidogrel or prasugrel beyond 15 months may be considered in patients undergoing DES placement (Level of evidence : C).

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2. DES vs. BMS : Controversy over use of DES vs. BMS in primary PCI is an ongoing one with results of recent studies showing conflicting results. Late stent thrombosis rates are clearly more with use of DES in STEMI setting (reaching as high as 2.75%), this is counterbalanced to some extent by lower restenosis events with use of DES for ON-LABEL indications. However, use of DES is still an OFF-LABEL indication.
3. Non-culprit lesion angioplasty in same sitting in multivessel CAD : ACC/AHA/SCAI has laid down multi-vessel PCI at the times of primacy PCI as Class III indication except in patients with cardiogenic shock where the procedure should be supported by intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP). However, a recent trial suggests that culprit vessel-only angioplasty was associated with higher rate of long-term major adverse cardiac event (MACE) compared with multivessel treatment.8
4. Left main coronary artery primary angioplasty : ACC/AHA has not given any specific recommendation as there is no randomized data available; most suitably these patients are to be treated as STEMI with cardiogenic shock with emergency revascularization by PCI or surgery according to availability together with mechanical circulatory support supplemented with GPIIb/IIIa inhibitors.
Indications for Fibrinolytic Therapy
1. In absence of contraindications, fibrinolytic therapy should be administered to STEMI patients with symptom onset within 12 hours and one of the following :
i. ST-elevation greater than 0.1 mV in atleast two contiguous precordial leads or at least two adjacent limb leads (IA).
ii. New or presumably new LBBB (IA)
iii. 12 lead ECG findings consistent with true posterior MI (IIaC)
2. In the absence of contraindications, it is reasonable to administer fibrinolytic therapy to STEMI patients with symptoms beginning within 12 to 24 hours who have continuing ischaemic symptoms and ST-elevation greater than 0.1 mV in at least two contiguous precordial leads or atleast two adjacent limb leads (IIaB).
Fibrinolytic therapy should not be administered to asymptomatic patients with symptoms beginning more than 24 hours earlier or to patients with only ST-segment depression except if true posterior MI is suspected.
Contraindications to Fibrinolysis
Absolute contraindications :
1. Any prior intracranial haemorrhage (ICH)
2. Known malignant intracranial neoplasm
3. Known intracranial cerebrovascular lesion (aneurysm or arteriovenous malformation)
4. Ischaemic stroke within 3 months
5. Known or suspected closed head or facial trauma within 3 months
6. Suspected aortic dissection and
7. Active bleeding or known bleeding diathesis

Relative contraindications :
1. Prior ischaemic stroke beyond 12 months
2. Major surgery within 3 weeks, recent (2-4 weeks) internal bleeding, prolonged or traumatic CPR or non-compressible vascular puncture.
3. Active peptic ulcer is only a relative contraindication to fibrinolysis unless there is active bleeding. Patients with positive test for occult blood only in stool may be considered for fibrinolytic therapy.
4. Severe uncontrolled hypertension (> 180/110 mmHg) is a relative contraindication. In view of the linear relationship between severity of hypertension and ICH, STEMI patients presenting with hypertension should be administered betablockers, nitroglycerin and analgesics promptly to lower blood pressure and reduce risk of ICH following fibrinolysis.
5. Patients on warfarin therapy have higher rates of haemorrhage. Higher the INR, higher is the risk of haemorrhage.
6. Pregnancy is a relative contraindication to fibrinolysis; however haemorrhagic diabetic retinopathy is not a contraindication for fibrinolytic therapy.
Occurrence of a change in neurological status after reperfusion therapy, particularly within the first 24 hours after initiation of treatment, is considered to be due to ICH until proven otherwise.
Assessment of Reperfusion (Non-invasive)
Relief of symptoms and maintenance or restoration of haemodynamic and/or electric stability are most obvious features of successful reperfusion following fibrinolytic therapy. However, there are objective parameters to assess reperfusion following fibrinolytic therapy.
ST-segment resolution : A close association with clinical outcomes has been found with ST-segment resolution which is a simple surrogate for both epicardial and myocardial reperfusion. ST-resolution has typically been categorized as either present (> 50%) or absent (< 50%) or as a three-way categorization : complete (> 70% resolution), partial (30-70% resolution) or none (< 30% resolution). Patients who achieve complete STresolution (> 70% resolution) are much more likely to have normal TIMI grade 3 flow on angiography following fibrinolysis compared to those with either partial or no ST-resolution.9 90% of patients with complete ST-resolution had a patent infarct related artery (IRA) and 70-80% achieved TIMI-3 flow. However, conversely some patients with TIMI-3 flow were not found to demonstrate complete ST-resolution since microvascular and tissue reperfusion (assessed by myocardial contrast echo and angiographic myocardial blush grading) were not achieved in these cases resulting in significant myonecrosis. Thus, ultimately ST-resolution is a good marker of tissue reperfusion after fibrinolytic therapy. Consequently, GISSI-2 trials has clearly shown that patients with > 50% ST-resolution were at much lower risk of death compared to those with < 50% resolution at 30 days (3.5 vs. 7.4% HR 0.46, 95% CI 0.37 – 0.47).10
Biomarkers : With successful reperfusion, reflow of blood allows faster clearance of necrotic proteins and hence CK-MB and troponin levels peak earlier and decline faster. Since troponin remains elevated longer (even weeks after a large MI) than CK-MB and CK-MB returns to normal range within

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METROPOLISES & BIG TOWNS

SMALL TOWN

VILLAGES

PRIMARY PCI

PRE-HOSPITAL FIBRINOLYSIS

HOSPITAL (ED)
FIBRINOLYSIS

PRE-HOSPITAL FIBRINOLYSIS

HOSPITAL (ED)
FIBRINOLYSIS

PHARMACOINVASIVE
PCI

RESCUE PCI

Fig. 1 : A proposed model of STEMI management over the next decade in India
48-72 hours, it is therefore the preferred marker for assessing a recurrent infarction.
Non-invasive imaging : Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) may have a role to play in evaluation of wall motion abnormalities if history and baseline ECG are inconclusive and in the initial assessment of infarct size and ventricular function. Follow-up echocardiography is reasonable only about two or more months later because myocardial stunning may yield misleading results with echocardiography if done earlier. Both nuclear imaging and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) are quite precise at quantifying the size of the infarct but have little role in the acute management of STEMI.
Status of Different Thrombolytic Agents
Streptokinase : Approved for general use
Alteplase : Established standard
Reteplase : Approved for general use
TNK-tPA : Approved for general use and likely to replace Alteplase because :
1. Bolus injection simplifies administration even in prehospital setting and reduces potential for medication errors.
2. Increased fibrin specificity provided by TNK-tPA does confer a significant decrease in major systemic bleeding.
Pre-hospital Thrombolysis
Pre-hospital fibrinolysis is reasonable in settings in which physicians or fully trained paramedics are present in the ambulance or pre-hospital transport times are more than 60 minutes.
Analysis of studies in which > 6000 patients were randomized to pre-hospital or in-hospital fibrinolysis has shown a significant reduction (17%) in early mortality with pre-hospital treatment.11 A much longer mortality reduction was found in patients treated within first 2 hours than in those treated later in a meta-analysis of 22 trials.12
This is especially relevant in developing countries like India with few tertiary care centres, predominantly rural population and where people either have to travel long distances to avail of medical facility or have to overcome urban traffic congestion. However, administration of pre-hospital thrombolysis needs tremendous infrastructure and a co-ordinated programme by government or private sector or both. A proposed model for “Reperfusion therapy in AMI” in various population segments of India has been shown in Figure 1.

Requisite for Pre-hospital Thrombolysis
• Critical care ambulances staffed with physicians ideally or paramedics trained to send pre-hospital ECG to corresponding hospital’s CCUs using telemedicine.
• Improving public awareness about value of time to treatment after onset of chest pain.
• Emergency dial numbers for hospitals pertaining to a locality.
Rescue PCI
Emergent PCI performed in a patient with evidence of failed reperfusion with fibrinolytic therapy is called rescue PCI. Success of rescue PCI in patients with moderate to large infarctions has been demonstrated in terms of improved LV function and overall clinical outcomes by review of early studies.13 More data are now available from recent studies like MERLIN14 AND REACT.15
Despite impressive results with successfully conducted rescue PCI, prognosis remains poor for those in whom rescue PCI is unsuccessful.
As per ACC/AHA Guidelines (2004),1 following are the Class I indications for rescue PCI :
a. Cardiogenic shock in patients less than 75 years old who are suitable candidates for revascularization (Level of Evidence : B).
b. Severe congestive heart failure and/or pulmonary oedema (Killip Class III) (Level of Evidence : B).
c. Haemodynamically compromising ventricular arrhythmias (Level of Evidence : C)
Class IIa indications for rescue PCI include
a. Cardiogenic shock in patients 75 years of age or older
b. Patients with haemodynamic or electrical instability or persistent ischaemic symptoms
c. Patients with failed reperfusion and a moderate or large myocardium at risk (anterior MI, inferior MI with RV involvement or precordial ST-segment depression).
Early PCI after Fibrinolytic Therapy
Initial trials of PCI within 24 hours of successful fibrinolysis reported increased rates of bleeding, recurrent ischaemia, emergency CABG and death.16,17 With the advent of stents and GPIIb/IIIa inhibitors, the scenario has changed considerably and recent trials with early PCI after fibrinolytic therapy report more favourable results.
The important trials in this regard are CARESS-in-AMI,18 CAPITAL-AMI,19 GRACIA,20 SIAM-III,21 WEST22 and the more recent TRANSFER-AMI.23
The average time interval from fibrinolysis to PCI in the trials mentioned above has been 2 hours to 17 hours implying that transfer for PCI need not be undertaken on an emergency basis. Such a strategy (often referred to as “Pharmaco-invasive strategy) emphasizes on very early fibrinolysis (< 2 hours) for achieving greater rates of successful reperfusion and at the same time allows a transition of care that causes less stress both to the patient and to ambulance crews.
ESC4 has accorded class I (Level of Evidence : A) status to PCI after successful lysis within 24-hours of fibrinolysis therapy independent from angina and/or ischaemia. The ACC/AHA/

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SCAI Guidelines in its latest update (2009)3 has accorded class IIa status to PCI in patients who have received fibrinolytic therapy and who are at “high risk” (Level of Evidence : B). It has accorded class IIb status to PCI after fibrinolytic therapy in patients who are not at high risk. (Level of Evidence : C). Considerations should be given in both groups to initiating a preparatory antithrombotic (anti-coagulant plus anti-platelet) regimen before and during patient transfer to the catheterization laboratory.

Adjunctive Therapy

A. With Fibrinolytic therapy

Class of

Level of

Recommendation Evidence

Antiplatelet co-therapy :

If not already on aspirin oral 150-325

I

B

mg soluble or chewable / non-enteric

coated) or i.v. dose of aspirin (250 mg

plus)

Clopidogrel oral loading dose (300

I

B

mg) if age ≤ 75 years

If age > 75 mg start with maintenance

IIa

B

dose of Clopidogrel (75 mg)

Antithrombin co-therapy with alteplase, reteplase and tenecteplase :

Enoxaparin i.v. bolus followed 15 min

I

A

later by first s.c. dose, if age > 75 years

no i.v. bolus and start with reduced

first s.c. dose

If enoxaparin is not available, a

I

A

weight-adjusted bolus of i.v. heparin

followed by a weight-adjusted i.v.

infusion with first aPTT control after

3 hours

With streptokinase :

An i.v. bolus of fondaparinux

IIa

B

followed by an s.c. dose 24 hours later

or

Enoxaparin i.v. bolus followed 15

IIa

B

minutes later first s.c. dose, if age >

75 years, no i.v. bolus and start with

reduced first s.c. dose or

A weight-adjusted dose of i.v. heparin followed by a weightadjusted infusion :

IIa

C

B. With Primary PCI :

Antiplatelet co-therapy :

Aspirin (oral dose of 150-325 mg or

I

B

i.v. dose of 250-500 mg)

Clopidogrel loading dose (300 mg,

I

C

preferably 600 mg)

Prasugrel (60 mg loading dose)

I

C

GPIIb/IIIa antagonist :

Abciximab

IIa

A

Tirofiban

IIb

B

Eptifibatide

IIb

C

Antithrombin therapy

Heparin

I

C

Bivalirudin (i.v. bolus of 0.75 mg /Kg

IIa

B

followed by infusion of 1.75 mg/Kg

hour)

Fondaparinux

III

B

Adjunctive devices :

Thrombus aspiration

IIb

B

41

Without reperfusion therapy :

Class of

Level of

Recommendation Evidence

Antiplatelet co-therapy :

If not already on aspirin oral (soluble

I

A

/ chewable / non-enteric coated) or i.v.

dose of aspirin if oral ingestion is not

feasible

Oral dose of clopidogrel (75 mg)

I

B

Antithrombin co-therapy :

2.5 mg i.v. bolus of fondaparinux

I

B

followed 24 hours later by an s.c. dose

If fondaparinux is not available,

I

B

enoxaparin i.v. bolus followed 15

minutes later by first s.c. dose; (1 mg /

Kg); if age > 75 years no i.v. bolus and

start with reduced s.c. dose (0.75 mg/

Kg) or

i.v. heparin followed by a weight-

I

B

adjusted i.v. infusion with first aPTT

control after 3 hours

References
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2. Antman EM, Hand M, Armstrong PW et al. 2007 focused update of the ACC/AHA 2004 guidelines for the management of patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction : a report of the American College of Cardiology /American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. J Am Coll Cardiol 2008;51:210-47.
3. Kushner FG, Hand M, Smith SC et al.2009 focused updates : ACC/ AHA guidelines for the management of patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (Updating the 2004 Guidelines and 2007 focused update) and ACC/AHA/SCAI guidelines on percutaneous coronary intervention (updating the 2005 guideline and 2007 focused update). A report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation / American Heart Association Task Force on practice guidelines. Circulation 2008;2271-2306.
4. Vande Werf F, Bax J, Betrice A et al. Management of acute myocardial infarction in patients presenting with persistent ST segment elevation. The Task Force on the management of STsegment elevation acute myocardial infarction of the European Society of Cardiology. European Heart Journal 2008;29:2009-2945.
5. Keeley EC, Boura JA, Grines CL. Primary angioplasty versus intravenous thrombolytic therapy for acute myocardial infarction : a quantitative review of 23 randomised trials. Lancet 2003;361:13-20.
6. Tarantani G, Razzolini R, Napodano M et al. Acceptable reperfusion delay to prefer primary angioplasty over fibrin-specific thrombolytic therapy is affected (mainly) by the patient’s mortality risk : 1 h doses not fit all. European Heart Journal 2010;31:676-683.
7. Widimsky P. Primary angioplasty vs. thrombolysis : the end of the controversy. European Heart Journal 2010;31:634-636.
8. Politi L, Sgura F, Rossi R et al. A randomised trial of target vessel versus multivessel revascularization in ST-elevation myocardial infarction : major adverse cardiac events during long-term followup. Heart 2010;96:662-667.
9. de Lemos JA, Braunwald E. ST-segment resolution as a tool assessing the efficacy of reperfusion therapy. J Am Coll Cardiol 2001;38:1283-94.
10. Mauri F, Maggioni AP, Franzosi MG, et al. A simple electrocardiographic predictor of outcome of patients with acute myocardial infarction treated with a thrombolytic agent. A Gruppo Italiano per lo Studio della Sopravvienza nell’ Infarno Miocardico

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(GISSI-2) – Derived Analysis. J Am Coll Cardiol 1994;24:600-7.
11. Morrison LJ, et al. Mortality and pre-hospital thrombolysis for acute myocardial infarction. A meta-analysis. JAMA 2000;283:2686-92.
12. Boersma E, et al. Early thrombolytic treatment in acute myocardial infarction : reappraisal of the golden hour. Lancet 1996;348:771-5 [Cross Ref] [Web of Science] [Medicine].
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14. Sutton AG, Campbell PG, Graham R, et al. A randomized trial of rescue angioplasty versus a conservative approach for failed fibrinolysis in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction : the Middlesbrough Early Revascularization to Limit Infarction (MERLIN) trial. Am J Coll Cardiol 2004;44:287-96.
15. Gershlick AH, Stephens – Lloyd A, Hughes S, et al. Rescue angioplasty after failed thrombolytic therapy for acute myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med 2005;35:2758-68.
16. Immediate vs delayed catheterization and angioplasty following thrombolytic therapy for acute myocardial infarction. TIMI-IIA results. The TIMI Research Group. JAMA 1988;260:2849-58.
17. Topol EJ, Califf RM, George BS et al. A randomized trial of immediate versus delayed elective angioplasty after intravenous tissue plasminogen activator in acute myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med 1987;317:581-8.

18. Di Mario C, Dudek D, Piscione F, et al. Immediate angioplasty versus standard therapy with rescue angioplasty after thrombolysis in the combined Abciximab REteplase Stent Study in Acute Myocardial Infarction (CARESS-in-AMI) : an open, prospective, randomized, multicentre trial. Lancet 2008;317:559-68.
19. Le May MR, Wells GA, Labinaz M, et al. Combined angioplasty and pharmacological intervention versus thyrombolysis alone in acute myocardial infarction (CAPITAL AMI study). J Am Coll Cardiol 2005;46:417-24.
20. Fernandez-Aviles F, Alonso JJ, Castro-Beiras A, et al. Routine invasive strategy within 24 hours of thrombolysis versus ischaemiaguided conservative approach for acute myocardial infarction with ST-segment elevation (GRACIA-1) : a randomized controlled trial. Lancet 2004;364:1045-53.
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23. Cantor WJ, Fitchett D, Borgundvaag B et al. for TRANSFER-AMI Trial investigators : Routine early angioplasty after fibrinolysis for acute myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med 2009;360:2705-18.

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Guidelines for Management of Acute Myocardial Infarction