Forms of the modal verb

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МОДАЛЬНЫЕ ова улеш
Г Л А Г О Л Ы .А. К
им МГУ теки лио ив биб арх й ктронны Эле



ни А име Практикум по грамматике
английского языка
МГУ теки лио Авторы-составители:
Н.Д. Голякевич, О.Д. Селюк
ив биб арх й ктронны Эле

ешова Кул

Могилев 2005

УДК 802.0-559 ББК 81.43.21
Рецензент старший преподаватель кафедры теории и практики английского языка
ва МГУ им, А.А. Кулешова Н.И. Бордюгова улешо Печатается по решению редакционно-издательского
. К и экспертного совета МГУ им. А.А. Кулешова ни А.А Модальные глаголы в английском языке: Практикум по грамме М74 матике английского языка / Авт-сост.: Н.Д. Голякевич, О.Д. Селюк. и Могилев: МГУ им. А.А. Кулешова, 2005. - 68 с. ГУ Практикум предназначен для работы со студентами II курса факультета М иностранных языков, а также может быть использован в учебном процессе и студентами неязыковых специальностей для ознакомления с употреблением ек в речи модальных глаголов английского языка.
блиот УДК 802.0-559 Электронный архив би ББК 81.43.21
© Н.Д. Голякевич, О.Д. Селюк, составление, 2004
О МГУ им. А.А. Кулешова, 2004

1. Ability, capability
2. Possibility due to ' cfrcum, stances.
I '' 3.a) Permiss to n jR ^ if

b) Request

c) Prohibition



ешова Forms of the л modal verb Ку can (can’t) . the present .А tense; А could и (couldn’t) н the past tense ме can (can’t) и the present У tense; Г could М (couldn’t) ки the past iense е can - the т present tense; ио could - the л past tense in б reported би speech,
ив could х (a polite re­ ар quest) Электронный can’t

Ways of rendering in Russian может
мог могли
могу может мог могли можешь можете
могу ли я не могли бы вы


Forms of thр Infinitive
Indefinite Infini­ tive

Kinds of sentences
affirmative interroga­ tive negative

Indefinite Infinitive
Indefinite Infinitive

affirmative negative interroga­ tive

Indefinite Infinitive

interroga­ tive I

Indefinite Infini­ tive

negative -

Some other ways ofexpressing the
saqie meaning to be Щ е to; to know hoWsto do somethingitsliave the ability to d o x something.
to be able to; it’s possible to do something
to permit; to be allowed

Sentence patterns
He can perform compli­ cated operations. He is a very skilful surgeon. Can she swim well? He could not feel or hear anything.
At a chemist’s shop you can get medicines of all kinds.
The doctor said, ‘You can take long walks every morning.”
Can (could) you give me some medicine for my headache?
You can’t visit him, he has an infectious dis­ ease.

Meaning 4. Unreality
5.Uncer­ tainty. doubt, astonish­ ment.

Forms of the modal verb

Ways of rendering
in Russian

Forms of the Infinitive

Kinds of sentences

could - (Sub­ мог бы

The Indefinite


junctive II

могли бы

Infinitive refers



the action to the tive

present or future. negative

The Perfect

Infinitive indi­

cates the action

Электронный архив библиотеки МГУ can/could

неужели может ли быть, чтобы

which was not carried out in the past. The Indefinite Infinitive refers the action to the present or future. The Continuous Infinitive refers the action to the present. The Perfect Infinitive refers the action to the past. The Perfect Continuous In­ finitive denotes an action begun in the past and continued into the moment of speaking.

interroga­ tive (general questions)

шова Some other ways ле of expressing the у same meaning . К would be able to do .А smth. мени А would have been иable to do smth.

Sentence patterns
Why don't you want the doctor to come? He could prescribe some medicine to bring down the fever (if he came). You could have stayed in bed for a few days. But you didn't.

Is it possible that...? Do you believe that...?

Can (could) he be her husband? He is twice as old as she is.

Can (could) she still be running a high tempera­ ture?

Can (couid) he have been operated on?
Can (could) they have been Keeping tc a diet for a few years?

ешова Meaning ул 6. Incredulity, . К improbability МГУ имени А.А 7. For emo­ и tional colour­ в библиотек ing

Forms of the modal verb can’t/ couldn’t
can/could (in present time contexts)

Ways of rendering in Russian не может быть, чтобы; невероятн о, чтобы; вряд ли
И что они... И о чем они ... И как он ... И что это она ...

Forms of the Infinitive
indefinite Infini­ tive Continuous In­ finitive Perfect Infinitive Perfect Continu­ ous Infinitive
Indefinite Infini­ tive Continuous In­ finitive Perfect Continu­ ous Infinitive

Kinds of sentences negative
interroga­ tive (special questions)

Some other ways o f expressing the
same meaning
It’s hardly possible that; 1refuse to believe that; 1don’t think it’s possible that; it’s next to impossible that; 1 don’t believe that; 1 doubt that; It’s im­ possible that; It's incredible that; It’s doubtful that...

Sentence patterns
He can’t (couldn’t) be her husband. She can’t (couldn’t) still be running a high tem­ perature. He can’t (couldn’t) have been operated on. They can’t (couldn’t) have been keeping to a diet for a few years.
What can (could) you know of such things? What can (could) they be speaking about? How can (could) you have made such a mis­ take? What can (could) he have been doing all this time?

Электронный архи СП

Notes: I. Remember the following set phrases with the verb can:

I. She can’t help crying. Она не может не плакать Не-couldn’t help

adm iring the city. Он не мог не восхищаться городом.

2 . 1 can’t but ask about it. Мне ничего другого не остается, как спросить

об этом. They c o u ld n ’t but refuse him. Им ничего не оставалось, как

отказать ему.


Не can’t possibly do it. He couldn’t possibly afford a car on his

а present salary. He can’t possibly have done it. Он просто не может (не

ов мог, не мог бы) ...

ш II. The Russian sentences of the type «Неужели он не заметил вас?

ле Не может быть, чтобы он не заметил вас. Неужели ему не нравится

у здесь? Не может быть, чтобы ему здесь не нравилось», are rendered

. К in English in the following ways:

.А 1.

Can (could) he have failed to notice you? 2. Can (could) he dislike

А it here?'3. Can (could) nobody have seen} him do it? 4. Can (could) he

ни never have got my letter? 5. Can (could) it be that he didn’t notice you? 6.

е ’t (couldn’t) have failed to notice you. 7. He can’t (couldn’t)-dislike

ГУ им r М 1. Explain the meanings of “can” in the following sentences. ки Translate the sentences into Russian. те 1 .1can see perfectly well what it is all about, thank you. о 2. Could you tell us what took place there? ли 3. “If only I could have been there”, she said. б 4 . 1could not check my tears, for they came against my will. би 5. And to her friends she can be very charming. в 6. It was nearly six month since his book had been published. Who could хи have been reading it, he^yvondered? ар 7. He could write rhyrri'ed verses with extraordinary rapidity. й 8. You cannot pośtpiorie your departure until next week. ы 9. Could he have been at the reception? I didn’t see him. нн /.10. This dress can’t be so shockingly expensive. о 11. Harris can’t have given thoiigh'flo trie matter. тр12. Could anyone like tinned fruit better than fresh fruit? ек13. Mr. Drake can’t have been working at the bank for fifteen years. л 14. Paul couldn’t have failed to learn French while living in France. Э 15. The dog can’t have bitten her without a reason.

16. Could the Howards still be living in Manchester?

17. You can take the Цре, recorder. We won’t need it today.


18. “And did you appfeVe of the treatment that was given?" he said curtly.

“I did, I cannot see how it could have been bettered” .


19. What on earth induced her to behave as she did, I never could understand. She could have married anybody she chose.
20. Can I smoke, Mr. Hawkins?

2. State in which of the following sentences the form could is (1)

the Past Indefinite of “can”, (2) a form expressing unreality, (3) a more

polite form of “can” and (4) a form irriplying nriore uncertainty than “can”.
а 1. She would often say that no one but she could control the little girl.i ов 2. Could you bring me some paper, please, to write my note on? %> ш 3. Milly asked what time it was, and her mother said that it couldn’t be е more than one>> ул 4. It was time for me to be getting back too, and I could have walked ^ . К back with him. But I knew somehow that he didn’t want that, so I sat for a few .А minutes watching him as he went down the road. А 5. F lA v where I was I could see the clear profile of his face.i, и 6. ‘‘Do you know what time we arrive at the frontier?” “I’m afraid I couldn’t ен tell you exactly”: • м 7. “It’s impossible,” exclaimed Phil. “He couldn’t have done it". ; и 8. It could not be done under the present circumstances. ГУ 9. You have no idea. I suppose, who could have been there-Ц М 10. You are Agatha, aren’t you? I could not be mistaken.^» ки 11. Perhaps you could tell me a little about these messages. е 12. At present they could promise nothing.

лиот 3. Turn the following into unreal statements and translate both

б variants into К ц ^ а ^ Change the form of the infinitive if necessary.

би 1. He’s obsttnśató'. Nothing can move him.


в 2. No one can ever tell me when he is joking.

хи 3. In the dimness of the room I could not see him very well.

р 4. You know I can never refuse you.

й а 5. Roger told me that she could run his small establishment better than

ы any paid housekeeper.

нн 6. No one could tell me where he lived.

о 7. He’s very good at all that. You can learn a lot from him.

тр 8. The trouble was I couldn’t do anything else.

ек9. She cannot tell us the truth.

л 10. She could not tell us thetruth then.

Э 11. That’s a question nobody can answer.

4. A. Put in “can” if possible, if not, use “could” or “w ill* be able to?5 Note: 1. We can use can if we are deciding now what to do in the future.

2. In other cases, we have to use will be able to. 3. Conditional: We can use could to mean “would be able to”. Examples: 1. I can see you tomorrow morning for half and hour. 2. One day we will be able to live without wars. 3. You could get a betterjob if you spoke a foreign language. 1 . 1... speakę a foreign language. 2. I think I ... speak English quite well in a few months.
а 3. “We need some more oil.” “O.K., I ... let you have some this week. ов 4. Dr. P arker... see you at 12 on Tuesday. ш 5. She ... walk again in a few weeks. е 6. If we took the wheels off, we ... get it through the back door. ул 7. Do you think one day people ... travel to the stars? . К 8. This week’s no good, but I ... bring the car next week. .А 9. If I practiced a bit, I ... be pretty goocFtennis. А 10. In a few years, computers ... think better than we do. и H^She ... give you a lesson this evening. ен 12. I’m free at the weekend, so the kids ... come round. м 13. I’ll post your letter, but I don’t think the postman ... read the address. и 14. We’re busy this week, but we ... repair it by next Thursday. ГУ B. Complete the sentences with could, couldn’t or “was” 1 “were М able to”, “managed to”,Succeeded in?’ и Note: We do not use could to say that we managed to do sth in one ек occasion. Instead, we use “was’’/ ’’w e r e \ УаЫе to”, “managed to”, от “succeeded in ... ing”. But the negative couldn’t is possible in all и situations. бл My grandfather couldn’t swim. We tried hard but we couldn't би persuade them. в 1.1 ... speak French really well when I lived in Paris. хи 2.He ... repair the car, but it took him a long time. р 3.At last I ... make her understand what I wanted. а 4.We wanted to go to the opera, but we ... get tickets. ый 5.1 ... swim across the river, but it was harder than I expected. н 6.All three children ... ride as well as they ... walk. он 7.Fortunately I ... get her address from her office. тр8.1 don’t know how the c a t ... get though the window, but it did. ек9.He ... already walk when he was 10 months old. Эл 10. After the accident, she somehow ... walk home.

5. A. Express strong doubt about these negative sentences.

Model: He didn’t notice you.


Can he have failed to notice you? He can’t have failed to notice



He doesn’t like it here. Can he dislike it here? He can’t dislike it here. 1 .You didn’t understand me. 2.She didn’t like the play. 3.They don’t trust him. 4.They didn’t notice the mistake. 5.They didn’t receive the telegram in time.
а 6.They didn’t realize the importance of the event. ов 7.She didn’t see you. еш B. Translate into English. ул 1. Неужели вы его не увидели? . К 2. Не мог он этого не заметить. .А 3. Неужели вы об этом не узнали? А 4. Не может быть, чтобы он не одобрял вашего решения. и 5. Не может быть, чтобы она вам об этом не рассказала. ен 6. Неужели он не верит этому? м 7. Не может быть, чтобы ей не нравились эти картины. и 8. Не может быть, чтобы я неправильно вас понял. ГУ 9. Неужели вы не нашли мою книгу? и М 6. Open the brackets using the appropriate form of the infinitive. ек 1. “ It’s so awful that I carVt (to give) you anything in return,” he said. “Give от me the watch you'pawnedfto stand me a supper” . It was a little gold watch и that could not (to cost) more than 10 pounds. бл 2. Jessup looked at him for a second or two with narrowed eyes. Then it би struck him “Wait a minute”, he shot out. “ If there’s food poisoning on board, it в can’t*(to be) only the pilots who’ve gone down with it?’ хи 3. “I’ve got the most wonderful news for you”, she said. “Jane is going to р be married”. “Nonsense! Can it (to be) true?” а 4. You couldn’t (to come) more fortunately: we want you to meet a friend ый of ours. н 5. What can he (to do) all this time? He went out art hour ago. f_<: t-.r он 6. Padraię knew where he was, because he coula ftó hear) the steady тр clocking of gn 'ахё from the direction of the woodheap. ек7. The blaze could (to see) now faraway. л 8 .1 met his wife. She was a woman of twenty-eight, I should think, though Эof a type whose age is always doubtful: for she cannot (to look) different
when she was twenty, and at forty would look no older. 9 “W ^atdo you propose to do?’ “Stay on here.” “I’m afraid it’s impossible,
I’m shtmmg bf) the house”. “Nonsense! There’ll be some servants here. You cannot (to sack) the lot.

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Forms of the modal verb