Implementation of Total Productive Maintenance in dairy


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POLITECNICO DI TORINO
MASTER’S DEGREE IN MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

Master’s degree thesis
Implementation of Total Productive Maintenance in dairy industry:
the case study at 3A Latte Arborea

Supervisor Prof. Maurizio Schenone

Candidate Marco Cara

A.A. 2018/19

M. Cara Implementation of Total Productive Maintenance: the case study at 3A Latte Arborea. _____________________________________________________________________________________________________

Summary

ABSTRACT

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ABSTRACT (ITALIAN VERSION)

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INTRODUCTION

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1 TOTAL PRODUCTIVE MAINTENANCE (TPM)

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1.1 The evolution of the maintenance management

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1.2 The generic definition of TPM

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1.3 The contemporary companies’ need of TPM

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1.4 The twelve steps to develop TPM

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1.5 Overall equipment effectiveness (OEE) index

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1.5.1 Availability

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1.5.2 Performance rate

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1.5.3 Quality rate

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1.6 Data collection and anaysis methods

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1.6.1 The sixteen major losses

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1.6.2 Data collection

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1.6.3 Analysis methods

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1.7 Autonomous maintenance

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1.7.1 The 5 “S”

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1.7.2 Tags in cleaning activity

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2 3A LATTE ARBOREA

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2.1 The company profile

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2.2 Products

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2.3 Dairy chain

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2.3.1 The dairy: fresh and UHT milk bottling process

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2.3.2 The fresh milk line

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2.3.3 The ESL (Extended shelf life) milk line

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2.3.4 The UHT milk line

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3 TPM IMPLEMENTATION AT 3A LATTE ARBOREA

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3.1 The starting point in March 2019

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3.2 The new production sheet

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3.2.1 Data entry

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3.2.2 Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) and the OEE index

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M. Cara Implementation of Total Productive Maintenance: the case study at 3A Latte Arborea. _____________________________________________________________________________________________________

3.3 The micro-stoppages sheet

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3.4 The anomalies tags and their database

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3.5 Autonomous maintenance

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3.5.1 The training period

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3.5.2 The cleaning activities

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3.5.3 The maintenance board

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4 THE ANALYSIS

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4.1 The OEE indexes from March to November 2019

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4.2 A sample OEE analysis

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4.3 Micro-stoppages from March to November 2019

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4.4 A sample micro-stoppages analysis

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4.5 The Ishikawa diagram and 5-why analysis

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4.6 The tags analysis

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5 AN ECONOMIC INVESTMENT EVALUATION UNDER THE CERTAINTY

REGIME

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6 CONCLUSIONS

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7 BIBLIOGRAPHY

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8 SITOGRAPHY

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9 APPENDIX

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-A3 Flex Compact 200/250 (1)

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-A3 Flex Base 500/1000, then A3 Speed Square 1000 (2)

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-A3 Speed Square 1000, then A3 Flex Edge 500/1000 (3)

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-A3 Flex Edge 500/1000 (4)

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-A3 Flex Edge 500/1000 (5)

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-TBA8 Base 1000 (6)

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M. Cara Implementation of Total Productive Maintenance: the case study at 3A Latte Arborea. _____________________________________________________________________________________________________
Abstract
Over the years, the concept of maintenance has changed considerably. Maintenance stopped being a mandatory activity following a failure but today it is a fundamental tool to work on to significantly increase the efficiency of a plant and therefore the performance of a company.
This thesis work began in March 2019 at the important dairy company 3A Latte Arborea based in Arborea (OR), Italy. The increasingly global and rapidly expanding market demand for the last few years has meant that the Company revises its production processes with a particular focus on maintenance management. Through this work lasting about nine months all the fundamental steps for the implementation of the "Total Productive Maintenance" (TPM) methodology, first theorized in Japan in the early 1970s, were started. From a breakdown maintenance it has thus passed to a TPM maintenance with the aim of arriving within a few years at an ideal condition of Zero failures and Zero defects. There were many activities that were introduced in the company after an initial training period both for operators and top management: the production sheets were modified and improved, new control, cleaning and inspection sheets were created, the DCS (Daily Control System) in departments was introduced, the management of the tags for the anomalies was started, etcetera. This new efforts within the Company were done to make maintenance no longer a secondary activity and a simply production support, but a real fundamental cornerstone for the correct functioning of the company at the same level as the production itself.
Through all the new KPIs (Key Performance Indicators) introduced within this thesis work over the months, it is possible to develop an in-depth and real-time analysis of the production processes and of the main anomalies. Then, is now possible to carry out a serious monitoring of times and methods that must be standardized and always maintained at a very high level over the years in order to reach excellent results for the Company.
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M. Cara Implementation of Total Productive Maintenance: the case study at 3A Latte Arborea. _____________________________________________________________________________________________________
Abstract (Italian version)
Nel corso degli anni, il concetto di manutenzione è cambiato considerevolmente. La manutenzione ha smesso di essere un’attività obbligatoria a seguito di un guasto ma è oggi uno strumento di fondamentale importanza su cui puntare per poter aumentare significativamente l’efficienza di un impianto e quindi le performance di un’azienda.
Questo lavoro di tesi nasce a Marzo 2019 presso l’importante azienda nazionale lattierocasearia 3A Latte Arborea con sede ad Arborea (OR), Italia. La domanda di un mercato sempre più globale e in continua crescita ha costretto l’Azienda, nel corso degl’ultimi anni, a ripianificare i suoi processi produttivi prestando particolare attenzione alla gestione della manutenzione. Attraverso questo lavoro durato all’incirca nove mesi sono stati messi in atto tutti i passi fondamentali per l’implementazione della metodologia “Total Productive Maintenance” (TPM), teorizzata per la prima volta in Giappone agli inizi degli anni ’70. Da una manutenzione “a gusto” si è così passati a una manutenzione “TPM” con l’intento di avvicinarsi sempre di più nel corso degli anni alla condizione ideale di Zero Guasti e Zero Difetti. Molte sono state le novità introdotte in azienda dopo un periodo di formazione sia per gli operatori di linea che per il top management: i fogli di produzione sono stati modificati e migliorati, nuovi fogli di controllo, pulizia e ispezione sono stati creati, è stato introdotto il DCS (Daily Control System) all’interno dei reparti, è stata avviata la gestione dei cartellini per le anomalie, ecc. Tutti questi nuovi sforzi all’interno dell’Azienda sono stati fatti per rendere la manutenzione non più un’attività secondaria e un semplice strumento di supporto alla produzione ma un vero e proprio caposaldo fondamentale per il corretto funzionamento dell’azienda allo stesso livello della produzione stessa.
Attraverso tutti i nuovi KPIs (Key Performance Indicators) introdotti nel corso dei mesi durante questo lavoro di tesi, è possibile sviluppare un’analisi approfondita e in tempo reale dei processi produttivi e delle principali anomalie. Inoltre, è oggi possibile effettuare un serio monitoraggio dei tempi e metodi che devono essere standardizzati e mantenuti sempre ad un livello molto alto nel corso degli anni ai fini di ottenere risultati eccellenti per l’Azienda.
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M. Cara Implementation of Total Productive Maintenance: the case study at 3A Latte Arborea. _____________________________________________________________________________________________________
Introduction
Nowadays, companies are facing increasingly demanding and global markets. The national and international markets offer the possibility of sell the products all over the world in a very short time. In order to do this, companies focus their attention only on increasing production leaving out the efficiency of machinery and their productivity.
The maintenance management and the control of the production processes do not always find the right space within the company organization even though these are the key for a correct production process. Since the late 1970s in Japan, the focus has been on improving the production process in terms of machinery efficiency as a support tool for increasing production at a lower cost.
One way to monitor machine efficiency is the introduction and analysis of the so-called KPIs (Key Performance Indicators) within the company. Among the many types of KPIs present in literature, the most famous is certainly the OEE index, theorized for the first time in Japan in 1971 by Seiichi Nakajima. This index offers the possibility of simultaneously monitoring the three fundamental pillars for high machine efficiency: Availability, Performance and Quality.
Today not only all the world leaders, but also the small-medium companies of Asia, Europe and America, are introducing the calculation and analysis of the OEE index as a tool for evaluating the production process.
This is also the case with the Cooperativa Assegnatari Associati Arborea, better known as 3A Latte Arborea, Italian leader in the dairy industry, based in Arborea (OR). Not only the national and European markets have pushed 3A Latte Arborea to increase its production, but also new intercontinental exports in countries such as the USA, China, Japan, Thailand, etc. have forced the company to make the most of its production facilities. From here, the need arises to introduce the TPM (Total Productive Maintenance) methodology within the company for maintenance management.
This thesis work started on March 2019, has been based on the implementation of this methodology at every stage: from its introduction to the analysis of the calculated indices, including data collection, OEE implementation, machine maintenance and cleaning standards, the daily control system for visual management of trends, management of anomalies tags,
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M. Cara Implementation of Total Productive Maintenance: the case study at 3A Latte Arborea. _____________________________________________________________________________________________________
micro-downtime analysis, autonomous maintenance implementation and finally an economic evaluation of the investment to improve the layout of the department.
Further development of this work is for sure the Japanese “Kaizen” (“continuous improvement”) in order to compete in the future for the Distinguished Plant Prize (the so called PM award) assigned by Japanese Institute of Plant Maintenance (JIPM) to those companies who successfully implemented TPM.
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M. Cara Implementation of Total Productive Maintenance: the case study at 3A Latte Arborea. _____________________________________________________________________________________________________
1 Total Productive Maintenance (TPM)
The Total Productive Maintenance is a set of methods and procedures adopted in a company as support of the production system in the logic of just-in-time and total quality control.
1.1 The evolution of the maintenance management
Until the ‘50s, the maintenance concept was to fix items when they are broken. During the years its perception is changed assuming maintenance as: “all activities aimed at keeping an item in, or restoring it to, the physical state considered necessary for the fulfilment of its production function” (Gits, 1992). Obviously this kind of definition includes also all the proactive tasks such as periodic inspections, daily monitoring, preventive replacement, etc.
Just in the second half of the 1900s, maintenance management assumed also a sort of economic role: it was still a tool of support of the production but it had to ensure some required quality and quantity levels in a safe and cost-effective manner.
Over the years, maintenance has gone through many phases:  Breakdown Maintenance (BM): Maintenance is adopted only when it’s strictly
required after a component or machine failure/stoppage. This implies very long unplanned stoppages, high costs of repair, excessive damages to equipment, spare parts problems etc. This method was used prior to 1950.  Preventive Maintenance (PM): This method was introduced in 1951 and it comprises all the activities of physical check up of the equipment in order to prevent breakdowns. It’s based on the concept that all the machines will undergo over breakdown in the future and so it includes all the activities to prevent it such as lubrications, cleaning, tightening, parts replacements. The production equipment may also be inspected during the preventive maintenance activities for sign of deterioration.  Corrective Maintenance (CM): Introduced in 1957, it is the utilizations of some physical equipment’s improvements in order to totally prevent the machine failure (improving the reliability) and make the maintenance work easier (improving maintainability). The main difference with PM is that in corrective maintenance the
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M. Cara Implementation of Total Productive Maintenance: the case study at 3A Latte Arborea. _____________________________________________________________________________________________________
problem must exist before the corrective action is taken. The information coming from CM, are used as a starting point for the next corrective improvement of the machine and for preventive maintenance of the equipment.  Productive Maintenance (PrM): The purpose of Productive Maintenance is to enhance the productivity of the equipment by reducing its total life cost over its entire life from design, fabrication, operation, maintenance and losses given by final degradation. It can be also seen as the sum of preventive and corrective maintenance operations. It’s basically founded on the reliability and maintainability improvement concept as well as cost-effectiveness.  Computerized maintenance management system (CMMS): CMMS is used as support in the maintenance activities through data collection, spare-parts inventories, repair schedules, failure histories. It can be seen as an automatization of PM. CMMS assists the maintenance management in the purchasing of material, reporting and data analysis.  Total Productive Maintenance (TPM): Born in Japan in 1971, TPM is based in the Productive maintenance concept and Toyota Motor Company first introduced it. Total Productive Maintenance is an innovative approach of considering maintenance as a part of the production process and not only a support of it. It tends basically in avoid at all every kind of unexpected stoppage of equipment by introducing autonomous maintenance by operators and day-by-day activities including total workforce. TPM is targeted to improve competiveness of companies and it is supported by a very strong mind-set of all employees’ levels to make it effective. This methodology tunes up existing processes and equipment in order to prevent failure, accidents and guarantee a safe work environment.
1.2 The generic definition of TPM
Since the end of the Second World War, the Japanese companies tended to import the American innovation and techniques of the business-management and the maintenance management was one of these. Subsequently, in a short time, Japanese products were recognized for their superior quality and exported in the occidental industrialized countries.
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M. Cara Implementation of Total Productive Maintenance: the case study at 3A Latte Arborea. _____________________________________________________________________________________________________
For this reason, the occidental industries focused their attention on the new improved Japanese concept of business-management. Total Productive Maintenance, first theorized by Seiichi Nakajima in 1971, was the maintenance management technique of Toyota Motor Company imported in America at the end of the ’70s and subsequently in all over the world.
TPM is usually defined as “the Productive Maintenance that implies total participating”. In the most cases the companies that try to implement TPM in their departments end up failing because it is wrongly widespread the idea that maintenance is just a process workers’ problem and not a top management’s one. Therefore, the participation of all the hierarchic levels inside the business is strictly necessary so that TPM could be effective.
The word “Total” in TPM assumes three different meanings: the first is “Total Efficiency” intended as economic efficiency and profitability; the second is “Total maintenance system” seen as the set of preventive maintenance (PM), corrective maintenance (CM) and productive maintenance (PrM); and finally “Total participation” including the autonomous maintenance carried on by small groups of workers. However, a definition of TPM can be summarized in five points:
1. Maximize plants’ efficiency. 2. Establish an accurate maintenance plan for the entire life of the machine. 3. Empower all the factory departments. 4. Involve all the employees at any level. 5. Carry on the Productive Maintenance thanks to small groups of workers.
In the Japanese mentality, TPM cannot work if it’s not associate with 5 key activities of muda (losses) elimination, the so called 5S: Seiri (Sort), Seiton (Set in order), Seisio (Shine), Seiketsu (Standardize), Shitsuke (Sustain).
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Implementation of Total Productive Maintenance in dairy