the case study of Kolleru Lake, South India


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Lake Catchment Interaction Analysis by Using Remote Sensing and GIS Techniques – the case study of Kolleru
Lake, South India
Dissertation Thesis
Submitted for obtaining the degree of Doctor of Natural Science (Dr. rer. nat.) to the Fachbereich Geographie
Philipps Universität Marburg by
Meena Kumari Kolli
Marburg, April 2020
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Supervisor:

Prof. Dr. Christian Opp Hydro-Geography and Soil Science Geography Faculty Philipps-Universität Marburg

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Declaration by the Author I declared that this thesis is composed of my original work, and contains no material previously published or written by another person except where due reference has been made in the text.
Meena Kumari Kolli
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List of Contents
List of Tables ..........................................................................................................VII List of Figures .......................................................................................................VIII Acknowledgment..................................................................................................... XI Abbreviation ..........................................................................................................XIII Abstract.................................................................................................................. XV Zusammenfassung............................................................................................... XIX CHAPTER 1 ................................................................................................................. 1
Introduction ........................................................................................................... 1 1. 1 Current wetland studies – a literature review ................................................... 1
1. 1. 1 Introduction to lakes.................................................................................. 3 1. 2 Distribution of Wetlands in India....................................................................... 7
1. 2. 1 Wetland mapping – a status review .......................................................... 8 1. 2. 2 Current loss of wetlands in India ............................................................. 11 1. 3 Use of Remote Sensing & GIS in wetland inventories ................................... 17 1. 4 Problem Statement ........................................................................................ 19 1. 5 Objective of the Research Investigation......................................................... 20 1. 6 Project design ................................................................................................ 20 References............................................................................................................ 22 CHAPTER 2............................................................................................................. 30 Study area............................................................................................................ 30 2. 1 Introduction .................................................................................................... 30 2. 2 Geographical location .................................................................................... 30 2. 3 Climate........................................................................................................... 31 2. 4 Land use conditions overview ........................................................................ 33 2. 5 Geomorphological units ................................................................................. 36 2. 6 Significance of the study ................................................................................ 36 References............................................................................................................ 37 CHAPTER 3............................................................................................................. 39 Data Used and Methodology.............................................................................. 39 3. 1 Database Preparation .................................................................................... 39 3. 1. 1 Soil data.................................................................................................. 39 3. 1. 2 Landuse data .......................................................................................... 44 3. 2 Methods ......................................................................................................... 45
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3. 2. 1 SWAT model........................................................................................... 46 3. 2. 2 Weighted overlay analysis ...................................................................... 47 3. 2. 3 RUSLE Model ......................................................................................... 48 References............................................................................................................ 49 CHAPTER 4: Estimation of Soil Erosion and Sediment ield Concentration across the Kolleru Lake Catchment using GIS.................................................... 51 4. 1 Introduction .................................................................................................... 51 4. 2 Study Area ..................................................................................................... 53 4. 3 Material and methods..................................................................................... 54 4. 3. 1 Rainfall Erosivity Factor (R) .................................................................... 55 4. 3. 2 Slope Length and Steepness Factor (LS) ............................................... 56 4. 3. 3 Support Practice factor (P)...................................................................... 57 4. 3. 4 Soil Erodibility Factor (K) ........................................................................ 58 4. 3. 5 Crop and management factor (C) ........................................................... 60 4. 3. 6 Predicting sediment yield ........................................................................ 61 4. 4 Results and Discussions ................................................................................ 62 4. 4. 1 Soil loss .................................................................................................. 62 4. 4. 2 Sediment delivery ratio ........................................................................... 63 4. 4. 3 Sediment yield ........................................................................................ 64 4. 5 Conclusions ................................................................................................... 66 References............................................................................................................ 67 CHAPTER 5: SWAT modeling – an integrated approach for the identification of critical diffuse pollution sources in the Kolleru Lake catchment, India 5. 1 Introduction .................................................................................................... 75 5. 2 Study area...................................................................................................... 77 5. 3 Significance of the study ................................................................................ 78 5. 4 Materials and Methods................................................................................... 79 5. 4. 1 SWAT model setup................................................................................. 79 5. 4. 2 Workflow to Action Plan .......................................................................... 81 5. 4. 3 BMPs setups and stakeholders engagements ........................................ 81 5. 5 Results and discussion .................................................................................. 82 5. 5. 1 Sub-basin level BMPs............................................................................. 82 5. 5. 2 Determination of HRU level BMPs .......................................................... 84 5. 5. 3 Temporal characteristics of diffuse pollutants ......................................... 85 5. 5. 4 Suggestions for pollution mitigation measures........................................ 87
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5. 5. 5 Limitations............................................................................................... 88 5. 5. 6 Summary ................................................................................................ 89 References............................................................................................................ 90 CHAPTER 6: Mapping of Potential Groundwater Recharge Zones in the Kolleru Lake catchment, India, by Using Remote Sensing and GIS Techniques 6. 1 Introduction .................................................................................................... 96 6. 2 Study area...................................................................................................... 97 6. 3 Database and methods .................................................................................. 98 6. 4 Results and discussions............................................................................... 101 6. 4. 1 Landuse map ........................................................................................ 102 6. 4. 2 Soil map................................................................................................ 102 6. 4. 3 Geomorphology .................................................................................... 103 6. 4. 4 Lineament ............................................................................................. 104 6. 4. 5 Rainfall.................................................................................................. 104 6. 4. 6 Slope .................................................................................................... 105 6. 4. 7 Drainage density ................................................................................... 105 6. 4. 8 NDVI ..................................................................................................... 106 6. 4. 9 Delineating of Groundwater Potential zone........................................... 106 6. 5 Conclusions ................................................................................................. 108 References.......................................................................................................... 109 CHAPTER 7............................................................................................................. 114 7. 1 Conclusions ................................................................................................. 114 7. 2 Limit of study ................................................................................................ 117 7. 3 Scope of further study .................................................................................. 118 Appendix A: .......................................................................................................... 119
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List of Tables

No Table 1.1 Table 2.1
Table 3.1 Table 3.2 Table 3.3 Table 4.1 Table 5.1 Table 5.2 Table 6.1

Description Number and size of various wetlands inventories in India
Landuse/ land cover changes in the Kolleru lake from 1977 2015 Available data for the research work of the Kolleru Lake catchment Soil texture calculations and mapping of Hydrologic Soil Groups Soil classification legend inferred from Fig. 3. 2
Support practice factor according to the slope
Diffuse pollution in a tributary level
Description of available data of the Kolleru Lake catchment
Classification of weighted thematic factors influencing potential groundwater zones

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35 39 41 42 57 82 98 100

VII

List of Figures

No Figure 1.1 Figure 1.2 Figure 1.3 Figure 1.4 Figure 1.5 Figure 1.6
Figure 1.7
Figure 2.1 Figure 2.2 Figure 2.3

Description Location map of Indian Ramsar sites (Data source: Ramsar Convention 2013) Location of the Ramsar wetlands in India

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Agricultural conversion areas into paddy fields

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Calcutta sewage wetland system

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Dal Lake in Kashmir

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Sundarban deltas in India a) Landsat-8 satellite image b) 15 Mangrove forests

Lake degradation contributing factors & effects (the example 17 of Kolleru Lake)

Location of the Kolleru Lake catchment

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Annual mean temperature of the Kolleru Lake area (1973- 31 2012)
The annual variations of precipitation and runoff in 30 years, 32 a) annual precipitation and runoff trends, b) monthly average precipitation curve, and runoff

Figure 2.4 Landuse land cover of the Kolleru Wildlife Sanctuary during 33 1999 (5'ft contour level)

Figure 2.5 Landuse land cover of the Kolleru Wildlife Sanctuary during 35 2018 (5'ft contour level)

Figure 2.6 Geomorphological structure of the Kolleru Lake catchment

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Figure 3.1 Soil textural triangle is used to classify the soil textural class 40 containing the percentage of sand, silt, and clay in soils

Figure 3.2 Soil map of the Kolleru Lake catchment

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Figure 3.3 Land use classification of Kolleru Lake catchment

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Figure 3.4 Methodology flowchart

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Figure 4.1 Study area (Kolleru Lake) location map, a) top-left (India map 53 shapefile, NRSC-Hyderabad), b) location of Kolleru Lake basin c) top-right (Land use map of Kolleru Lake basin

Figure 4.2 Methodology flowchart of the study

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Figure 4.3 Digitization of Kolleru Lake catchment along with tributaries 55 using DEM (Digital Elevation Model), Cartosat-1, USGS

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Earth Explorer

Figure 4.4 Stream network of the Kolleru Lake catchment inferred from 57 DEM

Figure 4.5 Field data processing based on the sieve analysis method of 58 Kolleru Lake

Figure 4.6 Texture classification of the soil sample from the Kolleru Lake 60 surrounding areas (actual area shown as in DEM format) area based on the sieve analysis method

Figure 4.7 NDVI classification of Kolleru Lake catchment

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Figure 4.8 Soil erosion risk map of Kolleru Lake catchment by using

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RUSLE method

Figure 4.9 Spatial distribution of sediment delivery ratio at Kolleru Lake 64

catchment

Figure 4.10 Sediment yield (t/ha/yr) at Kolleru Lake catchment

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Figure 5.1 a) Land use and land cover map b) Soil classification map of 80 the Kolleru lake catchment

Figure 5.2 Spatial distribution of a) nitrate-nitrogen b) and total 83 phosphorus load in the Kolleru Lake catchment (2008-2014)

Figure 5.3 Spatial distribution of NO3_N & TP, and percentage of land-

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use types in sub-basins

Figure 5.4 Spatial distribution of HRU priority levels for BMPs of a) 85 nitrate-nitrogen and b) total phosphorus in the Kolleru Lake catchment against village level division

Figure 5.5 Relation between a) runoff and nutrient fluxes in the Kolleru 87 Lake catchment b) runoff and NO3-N c) runoff and TP from 2008-2014

Figure 6.1 Location of the Kolleru Lake catchment in South India

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Figure 6.2 Methodology flowchart used for deriving potential 100 groundwater zones

Figure 6.3 a) Land use and land cover map b) soil classification map of 102 the Kolleru Lake catchment

Figure 6.4 a) Geomorphology and b) Lineament of the Kolleru Lake

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catchment

Figure 6.5 a) Rainfall distribution map b) Slope map of the Kolleru Lake 105

catchment

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Figure 6.6 a) Drainage density b) NDVI of the Kolleru Lake catchment

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Figure 6.7 Groundwater potential zones of the study area

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Figure 6.8 a) Spatial distribution of village groundwater assessment b) 108 depth to groundwater level

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the case study of Kolleru Lake, South India