Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) Implementation A Review

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IJSRD - International Journal for Scientific Research & Development| Vol. 4, Issue 07, 2016 | ISSN (online): 2321-0613

Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) Implementation – A Review

Shailendra Kumar Sahu1 Priyanka Gangber2 Santosh Kumar Mishra3 Shatendra Kumar Sahu4

1,2PG Student 3,4Assistant Professor

1,2,3,4Department of Mechanical Engineering

1,2,3,4Bhilai Institute of Technology, Durg

Abstract— Maintenance costs can account for 15 to 40 % of

TPM is a maintenance program that involves a

total manufacturing costs. These costs can be minimized by newly defined concept for maintaining plants and

the proper maintenance management. Quality and equipment. The development of TPM emphasizes several

Maintenance of manufacturing systems are closely related necessities. It is accompanied by a change in the way

functions of any organization. Today’s competitive employees think. First of all TPM is applied in Japanese car

environment requires much more effective equipment industry in 1970s. It was developed at Nippondenso, a major

management. Total productive maintenance (TPM) and Total supplier of Toyota Car Company, as a necessary element of

Quality Management (TQM) are the new approaches along the newly developed Toyota Production System. TPM is an

with other concepts to achieve World Class Manufacturing operations improvement process (machine efficiency and

system. The goal of the any TPM program is to improve reliability) involving all affected employees with a view to

productivity and quality along with increased employee getting as close to zero breakdowns and zero defects as

morale and job satisfaction. In this paper experience of possible.

implementing Total Productive Maintenance is shared and

TPM provides a comprehensive, life-cycle

investigated for an industry’s particular part known as Bright approach to equipment management that minimises

Bar shop. Overall Equipment Effectiveness is used as the equipment failures, production defects, and accidents. It

measure of success of TPM implementation. The various involves everyone in the organisation, from top-level

losses linked with the overall equipment effectiveness are management to production mechanics, and production

determined. The TPM pillars are implemented in order to support groups to outside suppliers (Ahuja and Khamba,

eliminate losses and to improve productivity. The study 2008a). It encompasses all departments including

found that focused TPM implementation over a sensible time maintenance, operations, facilities, design engineering,

period can advantageously contribute towards understanding project engineering, construction engineering, inventory and

of significant manufacturing performance improvements.

stores, purchasing, accounting and finance, and plant and

Key words: Total Productive Maintenance (TPM), Overall site management. TPM is intended to bring both functions

Equipment Effectiveness (OEE), Pillars of TPM, Quality, (production and maintenance) together by a combination of

Bright Bar Shop

good working practices, team working, and continuous

improvement. It is necessary to implement TPM in order to


satisfy global customer, to improve productivity and quality,

In manufacturing industry the total manufacturing cost consists of 15 to 40 % of maintenance costs. Most of equipment cost or system life costs are attributed to

to make work simpler and safer and to maintain competitive state. TPM also helps to ensure more effective use of human resource through training and multi- tasking.

maintenance and operational activities and these affects product cost. These costs can be primarily determined by the


decisions made during the planning and early design stage. Some the previous works have been reviewed in order to

Now manufacturers are realizing that maintenance collect the information about the implementation of TPM in

organization & management and design for reliability and different industries over past periods and to know the

maintainability are the main factor of success.

effectiveness of the TPM.

Today’s increasing competitive environment has

S. Nakajima,[1] is also known as the godfather of

showing the need for more effective equipment TPM. His book introduction to TPM explains that

management. Today’s requirement is highly automated and maintenance techniques are held responsible for completing

sophisticated equipment that is failure free and capable of maintenance tasks within a scheduled time-frame while still

producing zero defects. It is also important to have meeting production constraint.

maintenance and operations personnel skilled in maintaining

Kathleen E. Mc Kone, Roger G. Schroeder and

the optimal performance of the equipment.

Kristy O. Cua, [2] shows a contextual view of total

In today’s industrial scenario huge losses/wastage productive maintenance (TPM). They explain that what type

occur in the manufacturing shop floor. This waste is due to of companies have adopted TPM programs. The results

operators, maintenance personal, process, tooling problems indicate that while environmental contextual factors, such as

and non-availability of components in time etc. Other forms country, help to explain differences in TPM implementation,

of waste includes idle machines, idle manpower, break managerial contextual factors, which are under the direction

down machine, rejected parts etc. are all examples of waste. of plant management, are more important to the execution of

Zero oriented concepts such as zero tolerance for waste, TPM programs.

defects, break down and zero accidents are becoming a pre-

F. Ireland & B.G. Dale, [3] mention the study of

requisite in the manufacturing and assembly industry. In this total productive maintenance (TPM) implementation of

situation, a revolutionary concept of Total Productive three companies by following Nakajima’s seven steps of

Maintenance (TPM) has been adopted in many industries autonomous maintenance, but adopting different pillars

across the world to address the above said problem.

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among them common pillars are improvements, education and training, safety, and quality maintenance.
I. P. S. Ahuja & J. S. Khamba, [4] reveals the important issues in total productive maintenance ranging from maintenance techniques, framework of TPM, overall equipment effectiveness (OEE), TPM implementation practices, barriers and success factors in TPM implementation, etc.
I.P.S. Ahuja & Pankaj Kumar, [5] reviewed and studied the total productive maintenance (TPM) implementation at precision tube mills. This approach is directed towards the justification of TPM implementation for its support to competitive manufacturing in Indian industries.
Osama Taisir R. Almeanazel, [6] provides the goals and benefits of implementing total productive maintenance (TPM), and also focused on calculation of overall equipment effectiveness (OEE), and it also discuss what called the big six losses in any industry (the quality, availability and speed). Set of techniques like Single minute exchange die, computer maintenance management system, and production planning were suggested to the industry after calculating the OEE to improve their maintenance procedures and improve the productivity.
Manu Dogra, Vsihal S. Sharma, Anish Sachdeva, J.S. Dureja [7] suggested TPM as a key strategy for productivity improvement in process industry, by discussing detailed implementation of TPM in the cold rolling plant. After the study they found motivated employees, improvement in overall equipment effectiveness (OEE) and reduction in no. of accidents on shop floor.
By Pradeep Kumar, Dr. K. V. M. Varambally, Dr. Lewlyn L.R. Rodrigues [8] empirical study was conducted about the high end Printing press machines &Packaging machines based on real time data and analysis was done to obtain achievable results. Finally questionnaires were distributed to assess information on successful implementation of TPM in the industry. Results obtained through the empirical study reveals the varying trends in the Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE) and Total Productivity of the machines taken up for the study.
Amit Kumar Gupta & Dr. R. K. Garg, [9] works on OEE improvement by TPM implementation in an automobile manufacturing organisation. Through the case study of TPM implementation the increase in efficiency and productivity of machines in terms of overall equipment effectiveness are discussed.
Melesse Workneh Wakjira & Ajit Pal Singh, [10] apply TPM in a manufacturing industry and evaluate the correlations between various TPM implementation dimensions and manufacturing improvements and validate them by employing overall equipment effectiveness (OEE) in boiler plant. In this work the TPM initiatives have been evaluated and critical TPM success factors are identified for enhancing the effectiveness of TPM.
Jagtar Singh, Vikas Rastogi and Richa Sharma, [11] reviews all the Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) Pillars, TPM Implementation methodology and the contribution of TPM towards improving manufacturing performance.

Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) Implementation – A Review (IJSRD/Vol. 4/Issue 07/2016/041)
Kadiya Pinjal Navinchandra,[12] provides a review of the goals and benefits of implementing Total Productive Maintenance, and also focusing on calculating the overall equipment effectiveness in one of Steel Company in India, and it also discuss the big six losses in any industry.
Ranteshwar Singh, Ashish M Gohil, Dhaval B Shah, Sanjay Desai, [13] explains the implementation of TPM in a machine shop and identifies the loss associated with equipment effectiveness. All the pillars of TPM are implemented in a phased manner eliminating the losses and thus improving the utilization of CNC machines.
Chetan S Sethia, et al [14]focusing on calculating the overall equipment effectiveness in Rolling Mill, and it also discuss what called the big six losses in any industry (the quality, availability and speed). After calculating the OEE of the company a result company achieved 93.48% in quality factor of overall equipment effectiveness equation and 70.90% in availability where in performance it got 90.03% and the result is compared with the World class OEE.
Raffaele Iannone and Maria Elena Nenni, [15] gives the introduction to the fundamental of OEE, and also some interesting issues concerning the way to implement the index are investigated.
M. Vijayananthan, [16] performs TPM and total process control in heat treatment industry and as a result the company achieved 99% in quality factor of overall equipment effectiveness equation and 76% in availability where in performance it got 72%. Set of techniques like Single minute exchange die, computer maintenance management system, and production planning were suggested to the industry after calculating the OEE to improve their maintenance procedures and to improve the productivity.
The maintenance function is also known as physical asset management. Equipment management has gone through many phases. The progresses of maintenance concept over years are explained below: 1) Breakdown Maintenance (BM):-In this type of
maintenance the plant or equipment are run until they fail and they brought into running condition again by repairing them. It is based on emergency. 2) Preventive Maintenance (PM):- In this the preventive actions are apply to the plant or equipment in order to prevent or minimize the breakdown. 3) Predictive Maintenance (PdM):- As the name implies it simply means predicting the failure before it occurs by identifying the root cause and symptoms and eliminating that cause before they result in extensive damage of the equipment. 4) Corrective Maintenance (CM):-This type of maintenance is based on restoring a failed unit or equipment. It consists of typical adjustment to redesigning of the equipment. 5) Routine Maintenance (RM):- This is simplest form of planned maintenance. In this the small maintenance jobs such as cleaning, lubrication, inspection etc. are carried out at regular intervals. 6) Reliability Centred Maintenance (RCM):- It is a process to ensure that assets continue to do the

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intended work in their present operating situation. Successful implementation of RCM will lead to increase cost effectiveness, machine uptime and a greater understanding of the organisation’s level of risk. 7) Condition Based Maintenance (CBM): - in this method the condition of the equipment or some critical parts of the equipment are continuously monitored using sophisticated monitoring instruments so that the failure may be predicted well before it occurs and correct them.
TPM covers the way for excellent planning, organising, monitoring and controlling practices through its unique eight-pillar methodology involving:
A. 5S
TPM starts with 5S which is considered as the base or Foundation of TPM. 5S denotes five terms naming Seiri, Seiton, Seisio, Seiketsu, and Shitsuke.  Seiri (sort out): sort out unnecessary items from the
workplace and remove them.  Seiton (Set in order/Configure): Arrange necessary
items in good order so that they can be easily picked up for use.  Seisio (Shine/Clean and check): Clean the workplace completely to make it free from dust, dirt and clutter.  Seiketsu (Standardize/Conformity): Maintain high standard of housekeeping and workplace organization.  Shitsuke (Sustain/Custom and practice): Train and motivate people to follow good housekeeping disciplines autonomously.
B. Autonomous Maintenance
This pillar is geared towards developing operators to be able to take care of small maintenance tasks, thus freeing up the skilled maintenance people to spend time on more value added activity and technical repairs. The operators are responsible for upkeep of their equipment to prevent it from deteriorating. By use of this pillar, the aim is to maintain the machine in new condition. The activities involved are very simple nature. This includes cleaning, lubricating, visual inspection, tightening of loosened bolts etc.
C. Focused Improvement
Focused improvement includes all activities that maximize the overall effectiveness of equipment, processes, and plants through uncompromising elimination of losses and improvement of performance (Suzuki 1994). Kaizen in Japanese context simply means change (kai) for the better (zen). Kaizen is implemented by lower management and workers but relies heavily on support from senior management. This pillar focuses on that “A very large number of small improvements are more effective in an organizational environment than a few improvements of large value.”
D. Planned Maintenance
It is aimed to have trouble free machines and equipment’s producing defect free products for total customer satisfaction. This breaks maintenance down into four

Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) Implementation – A Review (IJSRD/Vol. 4/Issue 07/2016/041)
“families” or groups, viz., preventive maintenance, breakdown maintenance, corrective maintenance, and maintenance prevention. E. Quality Maintenance It is aimed towards customer delight through highest quality through defect free manufacturing. Focus is on eliminating non-conformances in a systematic manner, much like focused improvement. We gain understanding of what parts of the equipment affect product quality and begin to eliminate current quality concerns, and then move to potential quality concerns. Transition is from reactive to proactive (quality control to quality assurance). F. Education and Training It is aimed to have multi-skilled revitalized employees whose morale is high and who has eager to come to work and perform all required functions effectively and independently. Education is given to operators to upgrade their skill. It is not sufficient know only “Know-How” by they should also learn “Know-Why”. By experience they gain, “Know-How” to overcome a problem what to be done. G. Safety, Health and Environment In this area focus is on to create a safe workplace and a surrounding area that is not damaged by our process or procedures. This pillar will play an active role in each of the other pillars on a regular basis. Safety, health and environment target are zero accident, zero health damage, and zero fires. H. Office TPM Office TPM should be started after activating four other pillars of TPM (AM, Kaizen, PM, and QM).Office TPM must be followed to improve productivity, efficiency in the administrative functions and identify and eliminate losses. This includes analyzing processes and procedures towards increased office automation. I. Development Management Minimal problems and running in time on new equipment, Utilize learning from existing systems to new systems and Maintenance improvement initiatives.
Fig. 1: Eight Pillars of TPM [4]
V. SIX BIG LOSSES One of the most important objectives of TPM is to minimize or eliminate the six big losses of the industry that causes efficiency loss in manufacturing.
Following are the six big losses occur during production process:

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1) Breakdown losses- This type of losses is occur due to the failure of parts, which causes stop of production.
2) Setup and adjustment time losses- This type of losses occurs during to change in production process such as change of section, change operating condition, start of different shift, change of product.
3) Speed losses- When the output is smaller than the output at reference speed, then it is called speed losses. These losses are due to reduction in speed of the equipment.
4) Minor stoppage losses- Minor stoppage occurs due to jamming, machine idling.
5) Quality or defect losses- These losses are due to the defective product produced during the production process and therefore rework has to be done to remove the defects.
6) Yield losses- These losses are due to wasted raw material.

A well-known way of measuring the effectiveness is the Overall Equipment Efficiency (OEE) index. It has been firstly developed by the Japan Institute for Plant Maintenance (JIPM) and it is widely used in many industries. Overall equipment efficiency or effectiveness (OEE) is a hierarchy of metrics proposed by Seiichi Nakajima [1] to measure the performance of the equipment in a factory. OEE is a powerful tool that can be used to perform diagnostics as well as to compare production units in differing industries.
The traditional vision of TMP referred to Overall Equipment Efficiency while now it is generally recognized as Overall Equipment Effectiveness. The difference between efficiency and effectiveness is that effectiveness is the actual output over the reference output and efficiency is the actual input over the reference input. The Equipment Efficiency refers thus to ability to perform well at the lowest overall cost.
OEE can be defined as the ratio of the actual output of the equipment to the maximum output of the equipment under the best performance condition.


The OEE can be calculated by using formula

OEE = Valuable Operating Time


Loading Time


Valuable Operating Time is the net time during

which the equipment actually produces an acceptable


Loading Time is the actual number of hours that

the equipment is expected to work in a specific period (year,

month, week, or day).

The formula indicates how much the equipment is

doing what it is supposed to do and it captures the degree of

conforming to output requirements. It is clearly a measure of


Now in other way

Operating Time Availability (A) = Loading Time


Operating Time = Loading Time –Down Time

Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) Implementation – A Review (IJSRD/Vol. 4/Issue 07/2016/041)
Net Operating Time Performance (P) = Operating Time Where, Net Operating Time = Design Cycle Time × Output And
Valuable Operating Time Quality (Q) = Net Operating Time Where, Valuable Operating Time = Productive Operating Time- Defective Operating Time So from eq. (1) above formula the OEE can be calculated by OEE = Availability × Performance × Quality (2) So through a bottom-up approach based on the Six Big Losses model, OEE breaks the performance of equipment into three separate and measurable components: Availability, Performance and Quality. 1) Availability indicates the problem caused by down time losses. 2) Performance indicates the losses caused by speed losses. 3) Quality indicates the scrap and rework losses.
By the implementation of TPM we can have following benefits: 1) Various types of loss can be minimized 2) Overall equipment effectiveness can be increased 3) Deterioration of equipment can be minimized 4) TPM can also be adapted in construction, building
maintenance, transportation, and other different situations. 5) Equipment breakdown can become zero. 6) Skill level of workers can be higher.
[1] S. Nakajima, Introduction to Total Productive Maintenance, Productivity press, Cambridge, MA. (1988).
[2] Kathleen E. McKone, Roger G. Schroeder, Kristy O. Cua, Total productive maintenance: a contextual view, Journal of Operations Management 17 (1999). 123–144.
[3] F. Ireland & B.G. Dale, 2001 “A study of total productive maintenance implementation”, Journal of Quality in Maintenance Engineering, Vol. 7 No. 3, p. 183-191 (2001)
[4] I. P. S. Ahuja & J. S. Khamba, 2008, “Total productive maintenance: literature review and directions”, International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, Vol. 25 No. 7, p. 709-756. (2008)
[5] I.P.S. Ahuja, Pankaj Kumar, A case study of total productive maintenance implementation at precision tube mills, Journal of Quality in Maintenance Engineering Vol. 15 No. 3, (2009).
[6] Osama Taisir R. Almeanazel, Total Productive Maintenance Review and Overall Equipment Effectiveness Measurement, Jordan Journal of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Volume 4, Number 4, (2010).
[7] Manu Dogra, Vsihal S. Sharma, Anish Sachdeva, J.S. Dureja, TPM- a key strategy for productivity

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improvement in process industry, Journal of Engineering Science and Technology, Vol. 6, No. 1 (2011) 1 – 16. [8] Pradeep Kumar, Dr. K. V. M. Varambally, Dr. Lewlyn L.R. Rodrigues, A Methodology for Implementing Total Productive Maintenance in Manufacturing Industries–A Case Study, International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, (2012). [9] Amit Kumar Gupta, Dr. R. K. Garg, OEE Improvement by TPM Implementation: A Case Study, International Journal of IT, Engineering and Applied Sciences Research, (2012). [10] Melesse Workneh Wakjira, Ajit Pal Singh, Total Productive Maintenance: A Case Study in Manufacturing Industry, Global Journal of researches in engineering Industrial engineering, (2012). [11] Jagtar Singh, Vikas Rastogi and Richa Sharma, Total Productive Maintenance Review: A Case Study in Automobile Manufacturing Industry, International Journal of Current Engineering and Technology, Vol.3, No.5 (2013). [12] Kadiya Pinjal Navinchandra, Overall Equipment Effectiveness Measurement and Review of Total Productive Maintenance, (2012) [13] Ranteshwar Singh, Ashish M Gohil, Dhaval B Shah, Sanjay Desai, Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) Implementation in a Machine Shop: A Case Study, (2013) [14] Chetan S Sethia, Prof. P. N. Shende, Swapnil S Dange, A Case Study on Total Productive Maintenance in Rolling Mill, Journal of Emerging Technologies and Innovative Research (JETIR), (2014) [15] Raffaele Iannone and Maria Elena Nenni, Managing OEE to Optimize Factory Performance, INTECH, (2015). [16] M. Vijayananthan, Total productive maintenance and total process control in heat treatment industries, International Journal of Emerging Researches in Engineering Science and Technology, Volume 2, Issue 5, (2015)

Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) Implementation – A Review (IJSRD/Vol. 4/Issue 07/2016/041)

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Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) Implementation A Review