Counterintelligence And Espionage


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U. S. Department of Justice Federal Bureau of Investigation
FBI Academy Library Quantico, Virginia 22135

Subject Bibliography

COUNTERINTELLIGENCE AND ESPIONAGE

Al Qaeda Training Manual [Web Page]. URL http://www.au.af.mil/au/awc/awcgate/terrorism/alqaida%5Fmanual/. Abstract: The manual was located by the Manchester (England) Metropolitan Police during a search of an Al Qaeda member's home. The manual was found in a computer file described as "the military series" related to the "Declaration of Jihad." The Department of Justice provided selected text from the manual because it does not want to aid in educating terrorists or encourage further acts of terrorism.
3 Days of the Condor. (1999). Hollywood, Calif.: Paramount Pictures. Call Number: PN 1997.T474 Notes: DVD, 117 min. Abstract: A CIA agent who is on the run from a mass slaughter in his research office suddenly finds himself the target of both his employers and the unknown killers of his associates. Filmed in New York City, with some scenes shot inside the Twin Towers.
Batvinis, R. J. (2007). The Origins of FBI Counter-Intelligence. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas. Call Number: HV 8144 .F43 B48 2007 Abstract: Batvinis, a former FBI Agent, traces the FBI's counter-intelligence program from preWW II to post 9/11. He discusses historical spy cases, the expansion of the FBI's power and abilities to fight espionage, and their relationship with the military.
Berman, L. (2007). Perfect Spy: The Incredible Double Life of Pham Xuan An, Time Magazine Reporter and Vietnamese Communist Agent. New York: Smithsonian Books/Collins. Call Number: DS559.8M44B47 2007 Abstract: Pham Xuan An spied for North Vietnam during the Vietnam War. Several years before his death in 2006, he was interviewed by historian Larry Berman. These interviews form the basis for this biography, which adds to our understanding of the Vietnam War. Describes how An perfected his reporter cover by getting a journalism degree at a California college and becoming a trusted associate of reporters covering the Vietnam War.
Bonini, C. (2007). Collusion: International Espionage and the War on Terror. Hoboken, NJ: Melville House Pub. Call Number: HV6433.18B6613 2007
This bibliography is a representative selection of materials either owned or available at the FBI Academy Library. Inclusion of an item does not represent an endorsement by the FBI of the material or its author.

Abstract: The author describes how Rocco Martino, a failed spy, tried to make money by selling fake intelligence to the US concerning Iraq and the Niger uranium purchase. In addition to Nigergate, he also details international terrorism investigations concerning the CIA , SISMI and pre-Iraq war intelligence.
Breach. (2007). Universal City, Calif.: Universal Studios Home Entertainment. Call Number: PN1995.9.S87B74334 2007 Notes: DVD, 111 min. Abstract: Feature film covers the Hanssen case in the form of a spy thriller. Actor Chris Cooper does a masterful job of playing Hanssen, with Ryan Phillippe appearing as the FBI staff member, Eric O'Neil, who is deployed to help bring Hanssen out as a traitor.
Carmichael, S. W. True Believer: Inside the Investigation and Capture of Ana Montes, Cuba's Master Spy. Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press. Call Number: UB271.C92M65 2007 Abstract: An inside account, written by Scott W. Carmichael, the DIA's senior counterintelligence investigator, detailing how evidence was gathered against Ana Montes, an analyst with DIA, on charges of conspiracy to commit espionage.
Coll, S. (2004). Ghost Wars: The Secret History of the CIA, Afghanistan, and Bin Laden, from the Soviet Invasion to September 10, 2001. New York: Penguin Press. Call Number: DS371.2.C63 Abstract: Coll describes the secret history of the CIA in Afghanistan, the rise of the Taliban, and the emergence of bin Laden. In addition, he writes about the "Vulcans," Bush's top foreign policy advisors and their lack of interest in al Qaeda.
Constitutional Law-Due Process and Free Speech-District Court Hold That Recipients of Government Leaks Who Disclose Information “Related to National Defense" May Be Prosecuted Under the Espionage Act. (2007). Harvard Law Review, 120, 821-828. Abstract: Declares the Espionage Act unconstitutional and discusses the need for a new espionage statue, which would also protect the First Amendment rights of individuals. Discusses some recent cases--United States v. Rosen, Gorin v. United States and United States v. Morison.
Crowdy, T. (2006). The Enemy Within: A History of Espionage. Oxford: Osprey Publishing. Call Number: UB270.C76 2006 Abstract: A survey of espionage from ancient times to America's invasion of Iraq. Describes how the growth of surveillance technology, from miniature cameras to satellites, has left the human intelligence field lacking in appropriations and publicity.
Declassified. (1999). New York, NY: History Channel. Call Number: U271.U5 D44 1999 Notes: VHS, 200 min. Abstract: Recently declassified documents and newly discovered footage from both sides of the Iron Curtain are included in four sections covering the CIA, U.S. Army intelligence, FBI spy files and secret air operations.
Earley, P. (1988). Family of Spies. New York, NY: Bantam Books. Call Number: UB 271 .R92 W3435 1988 Abstract: John Walker, a former Warrant Officer and communications specialist for the U.S. Navy, persuaded his son, his brother, and his best friend to join him in a spy ring that sold U.S. secrets to the Soviet Union for more than 18 years. Written by a former Washington Post staff writer, and compiled from personal interviews, wiretapped conversations, family papers, and court transcripts, this journalistic account offers a comprehensive look at the Walker spy ring.
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From China with Love. (2004). Boston, Mass.: WGBH. Call Number: UB271.C6F76 2004 Notes: DVD, 60 min. Abstract: Special Agent J.J. Smith and Katrina Leung (Code name: Parlor Maid) had been working together for over 20 years in Los Angeles when it was determined that Katrina was acting as a double, triple, or possible "quadruple" agent for the Chinese government. She and J.J. Smith were arrested in 2003 and charged with espionage. It was revealed that Smith had a longtime sexual relationship with his asset Leung. In addition, another agent in San Francisco, top counterintelligence officer Bill Cleveland, also had a relationship with Leung. Leung had received over $1.7 million from the FBI for her information. A plea bargain resulted in minimal sentences for both Leung and Smith. Film includes interviews with a number of FBI agents who evaluate the incident from a counterintelligence perspective
Gertz, B. (2006). Enemies: How America's Foes Steal Our Vital Secrets--and How We Let It Happen. New York: Crown Forum. Call Number: UB251.U5G47 2006 Abstract: Describes how terrorist organizations and nations, especially China, are infiltrating U.S. organizations. Concludes that the U.S. has to improve intelligence-gathering, especially its' counterintelligence capabilities.
Herbig, K. L. Changes in Espionage by Americans: 1947-2007 [Web Page]. URL http://www.fas.org/sgp/library/changes.pdf. Abstract: This report is the third in a series of technical reports on espionage based on the PERSEREC Espionage Database, files of information from the press, and scholarship on espionage. The focus of the report is on changes and trends in espionage by Americans since 1990, compared with two earlier Cold War periods.
Hitz, F. P. (2005). The Great Game: The Myth and Reality of Espionage. New York: Knopf. Call Number: PR830.S65.H57 2005 Abstract: The author, who worked at the CIA for 21 years, divides espionage into various components--bureaucracy, craft, heroes and villains. In each case, he examines fictional and actual spies, using real-life examples and comparing them to fictional characters.
Hunter, R. W. (1999). Spy Hunter. Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press. Call Number: UB 271 .R92 W34375 Abstract: As lead investigator in the Walker case, the author, an FBI counterintelligence agent, takes you behind the scenes detailing how John Walker, with his brother, son and friend spied for Russia for nearly 20 years. Discusses the interviews with Walker's wife and brother as well as the interviews with the KGB general who supervised Walker.
Kessler, R. (2008-2009). The New Spies. SAIS Review, 28 No. 1, 147-56. Abstract: Discusses the changes the intelligence community has undergone since the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks. Especially detailed information is provided concerning the integration of the CIA and FBI at the National Counterterrorism Center in McLean, Virginia. Concludes that the FBI model of combining intelligence and law enforcement responsibility is superior to Great Britain’s domestic spy agency, MI5.
Kessler, R. (1988). Spy Vs. Spy: Stalking Soviet Spies in America. New York, NY: Macmillan Publishing Company. Call Number: UB 271 .R9K47 1988 Abstract: An inside account of how the FBI catches Soviet spies, Spy vs. Spy details the inner workings of American and Soviet espionage and counterintelligence from recruiting to infiltration. It also discloses serious security breaches of the National Security Agency and the CIA, and discusses Pollard, Pelton, and the Walkers. 3

Lamphere, R. J. a. T. S. (1986). The FBI-KGB War: A Special Agent’s Story. New York, NY: Random House. Call Number: HV 7911 .L325 A35 1986 Abstract: Largely a personal memoir of ex-FBI agent Robert Lamphere, who spent the majority of his 14-year FBI career fighting post-war espionage in the late forties and early fifties. He recounts several famous post-war spy cases in which he played a significant role, including Judith Coplon, Klaus Fuchs, Harry Gold, David Greenglass, and Julius and Ethel Rosenberg.
Lilley, J. R. (2004). China Hands. New York: Public Affairs. Call Number: E840.8.L48A3 2004 Abstract: Co-authored with Lilley's journalist son, this book is a survey of post imperial Chinese history. James Lilley, a CIA agent, ran covert operations in China for decades. In 1988, he returned to China as ambassador. Of particular interest is his account of the Tiananmen Square massacre.
Lindsey, R. (1979). The Falcon and the Snowman. New York, NY: Simon and Schuster. Call Number: UB 271 .R92 L425 Notes: VHS, 132min., PN 1995.9S68F35 Abstract: Chronicles the true story of Christopher John Boyce and Andrew Daulton Lee, two childhood friends with privileged upbringings, who embarked on a covert operation to sell U.S. satellite secrets to the Soviet Union in the 1970s. Boyce's father, an ex-FBI agent, used his connections to help his son gain employment with an aerospace company which helped run U.S. spy satellites. Christopher, fueled by a dislike of American policy, enlisted the help of close friend and drug dealer Andrew Lee to help him sell U.S. secrets afforded to him by his top-secret clearance. Boyce, codenamed Falcon, gathered the information, and Lee, codenamed The Snowman, delivered it to the Soviets until his arrest in 1977 ended their two-year escapade.
Looking Glass War. (2003). Culver City, Calif.: Columbia TriStar. Call Number: PR6062.E33 L62 Notes: DVD, 107 min. Abstract: Polish defector Leiser is promised political asylum in England if he will go back behind the Iron Curtain to confirm the suspicions of British Security Chief LeClerc that East Germany is building a rocket in violation of the disarmament pact.
Lowenthal, M. M. (2009). Intelligence: From Secrets to Policy. Washington, DC: CQ Press. Call Number: JK468.16L65 2009 Abstract: With this updated fourth edition on the basics of intelligence, the author, a former intelligence officer, includes the implementation of the Director of National Intelligence (DNI) reforms and the growth of transnational issues, such as WMD. In addition, the intelligence services of Britain, China, France, Israel and Russia are described.
Mackey, C. (2004). The Interrogators: Inside the Secret War Against Al Qaeda. New York: Little, Brown. Call Number: DS371.414 M33 2004 Abstract: Mackey, a pseudonym, was an interrogator at military prisons in Afghanistan. He interviewed thousands of al Qaeda and Taliban suspects, many of whom went to Guantanamo Bay. Provides insight into the problems of trying to play by the rules while using breakthrough psychological strategies.
Master Spy: The Robert Hanssen Story. (2002). New York: CBS Entertainment. Call Number: UB271.R92M27 2002 Notes: 2 Videocassettes, 180 min. Abstract: The story of Robert Hanssen has been re-created into a CBS miniseries, starring William Hurt and Mary-Louise Parker, with a teleplay by Norman Mailer. 4

National Counterintelligence Strategy of the United States of America [Web Page]. URL http://www.dni.gov/reports/NCIX_Strategy_2007.pdf [2007]. Abstract: Provides guidance for the conduct of the counterintelligence programs and activities of the United States government.
Philby, Burgess and Maclean. United States: Granada International, 2008. Call Number: PN1992.77.P45539 2008 Notes: DVD, 79 min. Abstract: Cambridge University friends, Kim Philby, Guy Burgess, and Donald Maclean became double agents for Russia. Philby was head of counter intelligence at MI6 and Burgess and MacLean were diplomats. In order to escape prosecution, they defected to the Soviet Union in 1963.
Radsan, A. J. (2007). The Unresolved Equation of Espionage and International Law. Michigan Journal of International Law, 28, 595-624. Abstract: While individual countries have regulated their intelligence activities through domestic statutes, very few countries, if any, have signed international treaties or international conventions that cover intelligence activities. Discusses diplomatic immunity and international espionage.
Red Files. (1999). Alexandria, Va.: PBS Home Video. Call Number: DK266.R49 Notes: VHS, 216 min. Abstract: Told from the Soviet perspective, the five episodes include: "Red Files," "Secret Victories of the KGB, "Soviet Sports Wars, “Secret Soviet Moon Mission," and "Soviet Propaganda Machine."
Reilly, Ace of Spies. (2005). United States: A&E. Call Number: UB271.G72 R454 2005 Notes: DVD, 10 hrs., 30min. Abstract: A 12 part British television miniseries, Reilly is a dramatization of the real-life adventures of Agent ST-I, aka Sidney Reilly, the inspiration behind Ian Fleming's James Bond. Whether stealing top-secret Russian oil information or dealing with a near overthrow of the Bolshevik Revolution to his final capture by Stalin's forces in 1918, the series stays close to historical fact.
Selling Secrets. (1998). New York: CBS Video. Call Number: UB271.U52P57 1998 Notes: VHS, 13 min. Abstract: Ed Bradley interviews convicted spy Earl Pitts on “60 Minutes.” Pitts, who joined the FBI in 1983, began selling secrets to the Soviets in 1987. Neither money nor ideology seemed to be factors for him. Instead, he blames the FBI for sending him to the New York field office with an inadequate salary. Pitts’ wife explains why she turned in additional evidence on her husband and how devastated she was at his betrayal. In the end, Pitts was sentenced to 27 years in jail.
Shannon, E. (2002). The Spy Next Door. Boston, MA: Little, Brown and Company. Call Number: UB 271 .R92 H3716 2002 Abstract: The story of Robert Hanssen, the "most damaging FBI agent in U.S. history," as told by two Time magazine reporters. Hanssen, a seemingly religious, communism-hating family man leaked some of the U.S.'s most valuable secrets to the Soviet Union for more than two decades, resulting in the deaths of a number of Russians who were working for U.S. intelligence. The authors interviewed over 150 people associated with Hanssen to delve into the background and motivations behind his betrayal. Emphasizes the FBI's investigation from tracking, to identifying, then laying the trap to catch Hanssen. Offers an interesting comparison of the modern-day FBI vs. the days of J. Edgar Hoover. 5

Smiley's People. (1982). Silver Spring, Md.: Acorn Media. Call Number: PR6062.E33 S659 2002 Notes: DVD, 324 min. Abstract: The spymaster is again called from retirement to come to the aid of the Circus-- British Secret Intelligence Service. The murder of an émigré Soviet General, who was also a British agent, sends Smiley digging into the past that moves towards a final showdown with his old adversary, Karla of Moscow Centre.
Spies Betraying a Nation. (1995). New York, NY: A&E Home Video. Call Number: UB270.S75 1995 Notes: VHS, 50 min. Abstract: Examines three cases which have compromised U.S. national security--Jonathan Pollard, a spy for Israel, John Walker and Jerry Whitworth, Soviet spies, and Aldrich Ames, also a spy for the Soviets, all sentenced to life in prison.
Spy Tek. (1998). New York: Discovery Channel Video. Call Number: UB270.S79 Notes: VHS, 150 min. Abstract: Exposes the technology and tactics of espionage, and the spies who stole the secrets as well as the FBI's role in uncovering espionage. Includes the first video tour of the KGB museum.
Spy Who Came In From the Cold. (2004). Hollywood, Calif.: Paramount Pictures. Call Number: PR6062.E33S62 2004 Notes: DVD, 112 min. Abstract: In this adaptation of John Le Carré's novel, a British spy defects to East Germany as a ruse to feed false information to the government. An accurate depiction of the Cold War era.
The Spy Next Door. (2002). New York: A&E Home Video. Call Number: UB271.R92H373 2002 Notes: VHS, 50 min. Abstract: Originally broadcast as a segment of Investigative Reports with Bill Kurtis, this documentary attempts to discover why Robert Hanssen committed espionage against the United States for over twenty years. Interviews with former FBI colleagues, his priest, and an exotic dancer to whom he gave gifts and money are inconclusive, with most commenting that they had no idea he was a spy nor why he did it. Good analysis of the damage Hanssen did to the counterintelligence program.
Tinker, Tailor, Soldier, Spy. (2002). Silver Spring, Md.: Acorn Media, 2002. Call Number: PN1997.2T58 2002 Notes: DVD, 324 min. Special features: Digitally remastered; interview with John Le Carré; Production notes; Cast filmographies; Le Carré biography and booklist Abstract: George Smiley is brought out of retirement to trace an enemy infiltrator in the department where he was once the prize employee.
Triple Cross. (2006). Burbank, Calif.: Warner Home Video. Call Number: JK468.S4 T75754 2006 Notes: DVD, 91 min. Abstract: A documentary about Ali A. Mohamed, a radical ex-Egyptian Army sergeant who convinced the CIA to hire him. He was also an FBI informant, and a mole for al Qaeda.
Umbrella Assassin. Arlington, Va.: PBS Home Video, 2007. Call Number: HV6505.S43 2007 Notes: DVD, 60 min. Abstract: Investigate the deceptive world of espionage during the Cold War. The KGB used one 6

of the most ingenious and unobtrusive weapons to murder an outspoken Bulgarian dissident. The Umbrella Assassin investigates the cloak and dagger world of Cold War espionage and political intrigue, and examines newly discovered evidence that may reveal just how the umbrella gun actually worked, and who pulled the trigger.
Vise, D. A. (2002). The Bureau and the Mole. New York, NY: Atlantic Monthly Press. Call Number: UB 271 .R92 H372 2002 Abstract: Pulitzer-prize winning author David Vise tells the story of double agent Robert Philip Hanssen, arrested in February 2001, for what has turned out to be the biggest sellout of United States national security secrets in the history of the FBI. The author concludes it was neither ideology nor money that kept Hanssen going but the power that manipulation brings.
Vladeck, S. I. (2007). Inchoate Liability and the Espionage Act: The Statutory Framework and the Freedom of the Press. Harvard Law and Policy Review, 1, 219-37. Abstract: Describes how the application of the theories of inchoate liability to the language of the Espionage Act could cause potential problems for members of the press. Discusses the balance needed between national security and freedom of the press.
Walker, J. A. (2008). My Life as a Spy: One of America's Most Notorious Spies Finally Tells His Story. Amherst, N.Y.: Prometheus Books. Call Number: UB 271.R92W3445 2008 Abstract: John Walker was a communications specialist in the U. S. Navy and from 1968 to 1985 he passed cryptographic secrets to the KGB so the Soviets could track U. S. fleet movements. He wrote the memoir for his children to explain his actions.
Wallace, R. (2008). Spycraft: The Secret History of the CIA's Spytechs from Communism to Al-Qaeda. New York, NY: Dutton. Call Number: JK468.16W35 2008 Abstract: An organizational and operational history of the CIA's Office of Technical Services (OTS), written by Robert Wallace, who directed the OTS from 1998 to 2002. Concludes that defending against sophisticated digital technology is the primary challenge of U.S. intelligence today.
Weiner, T. (2007). How to Make a Spy. Foreign Policy, 162, 44-48. Abstract: Describes how the current CIA workforce is inexperienced, particularly in the area of languages. The U.S. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) has received proper funding, but more money needs to be placed in language training starting at age 18. Technology cannot replace human intelligence gathering.
West, N. (1991). Mole Hunt: Searching for Soviet Spies in British Intelligence. New York, NY: Berkley Books. Call Number: UB 251 .G7 W485 1991 Abstract: The story of a two-decade search for Soviet spies who infiltrated Britain's counterintelligence and security agency, MI5. The author, an espionage historian, concludes that Graham Mitchell, MI5 head Roger Hollis' deputy, was a spy. However, the traitor has never been identified. Both Hollis and Mitchell were officially cleared.
Compiled by Cheryl Weidner, 3/09.
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Counterintelligence And Espionage