A History Of Korean Christianity


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Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-19638-3 - A History of Korean Christianity Sebastian C. H. Kim and Kirsteen Kim Frontmatter More information
A HISTORY OF KOREAN CHRISTIANITY
With a third of South Koreans now identifying themselves as Christian, Christian churches play an increasingly prominent role in the social and political events of the Korean peninsula. Sebastian C. H. Kim and Kirsteen Kim’s comprehensive and timely history of different Christian denominations in Korea includes surveys of the Catholic, Orthodox and Protestant traditions as well as new church movements. They examine the Korean Christian diaspora and missionary movements from South Korea and also give cutting-edge insights into North Korea. This book, the first recent one-volume history and analysis of Korean Christianity in English, highlights the challenges faced by the Christian churches in view of Korea’s distinctive and multireligious cultural heritage, South Korea’s rapid rise in global economic power and the precarious state of North Korea, which threatens global peace. This history will be an important resource for all students of world Christianity, Korean studies and mission studies.
sebastian c. h. kim holds the Chair in Theology and Public Life in the faculty of education and theology at York St John University. He is the author of In Search of Identity: Debates on Religious Conversion in India (2003) and Theology in the Public Sphere (2011) and the editor of a number of books, including Christian Theology in Asia (2008).
kirsteen kim, Professor of Theology and World Christianity at Leeds Trinity University, is the author of The Holy Spirit in the World (2007) and Joining in with the Spirit (2012) and the co-author, with Sebastian C. H. Kim, of Christianity as a World Religion (2008). She is also the co-editor of several books, including The New Evangelization: Faith, People, Context and Practice (with Paul Grogan, 2014).

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Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-19638-3 - A History of Korean Christianity Sebastian C. H. Kim and Kirsteen Kim Frontmatter More information
To Jonathan Jae-young and Lydia Sun-young

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Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-19638-3 - A History of Korean Christianity Sebastian C. H. Kim and Kirsteen Kim Frontmatter More information
A HISTORY OF KOREAN CHRISTIANITY
SEBASTIAN C. H. KIM
York St John University
KIRSTEEN KIM
Leeds Trinity University

© in this web service Cambridge University Press

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Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-19638-3 - A History of Korean Christianity Sebastian C. H. Kim and Kirsteen Kim Frontmatter More information

32 Avenue of the Americas, New York, ny 10013-2473, usa

Cambridge University Press is part of the University of Cambridge.
It furthers the University’s mission by disseminating knowledge in the pursuit of education, learning and research at the highest international levels of excellence.

www.cambridge.org Information on this title: www.cambridge.org/9780521196383

© Sebastian C. H. Kim and Kirsteen Kim 2015

This publication is in copyright. Subject to statutory exception and to the provisions of relevant collective licensing agreements, no reproduction of any part may take place without the written
permission of Cambridge University Press.

First published 2015

Printed in the United States of America

A catalog record for this publication is available from the British Library.

Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data

Kim, Sebastian C. H.

A history of Korean Christianity / Sebastian C. H. Kim, Kirsteen Kim.

pages cm

Includes bibliographical references.

isbn 978-0-521-19638-3 (hardback)

1. Korea – Church history. I. Kim, Kirsteen. II. Title.

br1325.k565 2014

275.19–dc23

2014021773

isbn 978-0-521-19638-3 Hardback

Cambridge University Press has no responsibility for the persistence or accuracy of urls for external or third-party Internet Web sites referred to in this publication
and does not guarantee that any content on such Web sites is, or will remain, accurate or appropriate.

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Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-19638-3 - A History of Korean Christianity Sebastian C. H. Kim and Kirsteen Kim Frontmatter More information

Contents

Illustrations Acknowledgements Abbreviations

page vii ix xi

1 Introduction

1

Researching Korean Christianity

2

Pertinent Features of ‘Traditional Korea’

7

2 Believers, Martyrs and Missionaries, 1592–1876

14

Joseon Korean Contacts with Catholicism before 1777

15

Western Learning and the First Korean Catholic Community,

1777–1800

19

Catholic Villages and Episodes of Persecution, 1801–1863

31

The Forced Opening of Korea and the Great Persecution, 1863–1876

44

The Church of the Martyrs

49

3 Evangelism, Patriotism and Revivalism, 1876–1910

54

Bible Translation and the First Protestant Churches, 1876–1884

56

Revived Catholic Church, 1876–1884

60

The Gapsin Coup (1884) and Presbyterian and Methodist Missions

62

The Expansion of Churches in the 1890s and Bible Women

70

The Sino-Japanese War (1895) and the Growth of Christianity

79

The Struggle for the Nation and the Japanese Protectorate (1905)

88

The Revival (1903–1907) and the Resistance

93

The Indigenisation of Protestantism

100

4 Oppression, Resistance and Millennial Hope, 1910–1945

107

Churches and Schools under Japanese Oppression, 1910–1919

108

Christian Nationalism and the March 1st Independence Movement, 1919

119

Churches and Socialism under the Cultural Policy, 1920–1931

127

Protestant Revivalism, Gibok Sinang and Millennialism in the 1920s

139

National Churches, Ethnic Nationalism and Internal Tensions in the 1930s 143

War, Shinto Ceremonies and the Suppression of Christianity, 1935–1945

150

v

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Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-19638-3 - A History of Korean Christianity Sebastian C. H. Kim and Kirsteen Kim Frontmatter More information

vi

Contents

5 Liberation, Service and Divisions, 1945–1961

157

Liberation and Christian Leadership, 1945

157

The Suppression of Christianity in the North, 1945–1950

162

Church and National Politics in the South, 1945–1950

168

The Churches in the Korean War, 1950–1953

180

Church Reconstruction and Politics in South Korea, 1953–1961

186

Religion in North Korea, Post-1953

193

Protestant Plurality and New Movements in the South, 1948–1961

196

6 Growth, Thought and Struggle, 1961–1988

207

Christianity in South Korea in the 1960s

208

Church Growth and Economic Development in the South, 1960s–1980s

215

Christian Support for National Reconstruction, 1960s–1980s

230

Christian Activism in Labour and Farmers’ Movements in the 1970s

234

Christian Leadership in the Democratisation Movement, 1980–1988

246

North Korea, Juche-Kimilsungism and the Choso˘n Christian Federation,

1961–1988

256

7 Missions, Reconciliation and Public Life, 1988–Present

263

Unification, Aid and Christianity in North Korea

264

The Churches in South Korea

274

Christians in South Korean Public Life

290

Christian Diaspora, Global Interactions and Overseas Missions

299

Glossary

317

Bibliography

321

Index

355

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Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-19638-3 - A History of Korean Christianity Sebastian C. H. Kim and Kirsteen Kim Frontmatter More information

Illustrations

maps
1 East Asia region (contemporary) 2 Late Joseon Korea, showing provinces and selected cities

page xiii xiv

figures

1 Jugyo Yoji (Essentials of the Lord’s Teaching)

31

2 Official notice banning Catholicism

33

3 Martyrs’ Memorial, Yanghwajin

47

4 Suh Sang-ryun and his family

59

5 Gil Seon-ju and members of Jangdaehyeon Church

96

6 Jung-geun giving his last words

100

7 Yu Gwan-sun leading a demonstration

122

8 Youngnak Church building

174

9 Memorial gathering at Myeongdong Cathedral

252

10 Kim Chung-youn, medical missionary in Uganda

310

tables

1 Table of demographic changes in South Korean Christian

membership (1950–2005)

275

2 Table of Korean Protestant missions by region

308

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Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-19638-3 - A History of Korean Christianity Sebastian C. H. Kim and Kirsteen Kim Frontmatter More information

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Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-19638-3 - A History of Korean Christianity Sebastian C. H. Kim and Kirsteen Kim Frontmatter More information

Acknowledgements
There are many people who have made this project possible and to whom we would like to express our sincere thanks and appreciation. First, we wish to acknowledge the support of our respective institutions, especially Professor Julian Stern and other staff at the Faculty of Education and Theology at York St John University and Professor Maureen Meikle and colleagues in the Department of Humanities at Leeds Trinity University.
Second, we wish to thank experts at several institutions in Seoul: the Presbyterian College and Theological Seminary, the Korean Christian Museum at Soongsil University, the Institute of the History of Christianity in Korea, the National Organization of the Korean Presbyterian Women and Sogang University. We express our gratitude to members of the following networks and organisations: the British Association for Korean Studies, the Korean Religions Group at the American Academy of Religions, the Journal of Korean Religions, the Global Network for Public Theology, the International Association for Mission Studies, the Commission on World Mission and Evangelism of the World Council of Churches, the Yale-Edinburgh Group for the history of world Christianity and the Munich-Freising Conferences on World Christianity.
We would also like to give our grateful thanks to the following individuals for their support: Rev. Dr Paul Kiman Choi, Rev. Dr Park Chongsoon, Rev. Dr Kim Sam-whan, Rev. Dr Kwang Sun Rhee and Rev. Dr Lee Chul-shin. And we would like to acknowledge the help of Rev. Dr Jooseop Keum, Rev. Dr Andrew Chung Yoube Ha and the members of the Korean Catholicism hub at Leeds Trinity University: the late Peter Corbishley, Jung Soo Cho and Dr Andrew Finch.
And finally, we both wish to express our gratitude to the staff at Cambridge University Press, especially our editor Laura Morris, for all their hard work to prepare this book for publication.
ix

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Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-19638-3 - A History of Korean Christianity Sebastian C. H. Kim and Kirsteen Kim Frontmatter More information

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